Main Article Content
Mine lifecycle planning is critical to developing enduring value from mining for remote communities. The history of mining is replete with examples of communities being unsustainable post mine closure. The concept of enduring value involves ensuring that a sustainable community will remain following the closure of an associated mine. Since 2003, awareness has increased amongst the International and Australian peak mining bodies for the need to plan for enduring community value. This increased awareness has developed alongside the requirement for mining companies to operate in a socially responsible manner by maintaining a social license to operate. This paper thematically reviews the literature relevant to mine life cycle planning, enduring value, the socio-economic impacts of mining, and mine closure. Conditions required for a community to gain enduring value from mining include: ‘normalisation’ rather than being a ‘closed’ town; the existence of government support and funding; and realised economic diversification opportunities. It is imperative that these conditions are given due consideration 1) in the initial stages of mine and town planning and 2) throughout the life of the mine through ongoing monitoring and community engagement. However, we acknowledge the shortcomings in assuming planning is a panacea and suggest areas for further testing.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit articles to this journal from 31st March 2014 for publication, agree to the following terms:
a) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share and adapt the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
c) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Open Access Citation Advantage Service). Where authors include such a work in an institutional repository or on their website (ie. a copy of a work which has been published in a UTS ePRESS journal, or a pre-print or post-print version of that work), we request that they include a statement that acknowledges the UTS ePRESS publication including the name of the journal, the volume number and a web-link to the journal item.
d) Authors should be aware that the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License permits readers to share (copy and redistribute the work in any medium or format) and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the work) for any purpose, even commercially, provided they also give appropriate credit to the work, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. They may do these things in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests you or your publisher endorses their use.
For Issue: "Occasional Papers" and before, the following copyright applied:
Authors, upon submission, communicate their acceptance of the following conditions:
The work, upon publication, becomes the property of the International Journal of Rural Law and Policy.
Upon publication, the work is licenced under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial_No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License.
Permissions for subsequent publication/reprint and/or derivative works must be obtained from the Editors of the Journal of Rural Law and Policy
D Houghton, ‘Long-Distance Commuting: A New Approach to Mining in Australia’ (1993) 159 The Geographical Journal 281
William R Freudenburg and Scott Frickel, ‘Digging Deeper: Mining-Dependent Regions in Historical Perspective’ (1994) 59 Rural Sociology 266
Keith Storey, ‘Fly-in/Fly-out and Fly-Over: Mining and Regional Development in Western Australia’ (2001) 32 Australian Geographer 133
Britt Dale, ‘An Institutionalist Approach to Local Restructuring: The Case of Four Norwegian Mining Towns’ (2002) 9 European Urban and Regional Studies 5.
Minerals Council Australia, Leading Practice Sustainable Development for the Mining Industry: Mine Closure and Completion (Department Industry Tourism and Resources, 2006).
B D Blackwell and B Dollery, ‘Income Factor Shares from Mining in Remote Australia: An Analysis of the Ranger Uranium Mine and the Tanami Gold Mine in the Northern Territory’ (2013) 19 Australasian Journal of Regional Studies 369.
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Cat No 4102.0 – Australian Social Trends (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008).
Australian Government, Closing the Gap: Prime Minister's Report 2014 (Australian Government, 2014).
D Meehan, ‘Lifecycle of a mine’ (2012) accessed 14 Dec 2012
D Franks, Social Impact Assessment of Resource Projects (Mining for Development: Guide to Australian Practice (IM4DC, 2012).
M Veiga, M Scoble and M McAllister, 'Mining with Communities' (2001) 25 Natural Resources Forum 191, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-8947.2001.tb00761.x
Minerals Council Australia, 'Leading Practice Sustainable Development for the Mining Industry: Mine Closure and Completion' (Department Industry Tourism and Resources, Canberra, 2006).
A Browne, D Stehlik and A Buckley, 'Social Licences to Operate: For Better not for Worse; for Richer not for Poorer? The Impacts of Unplanned Mining Closure for “Fence Line” Residential Communities' (2011) 16(7) Local Environment 707
B Pini, R Mayes and P McDonald, 'The Emotional Geography of a Mine Closure: A Study of the Ravensthorpe Nickel mine in Western Australia' (2010) 11(6) Social and Cultural Geography 559, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14649365.2010.497850
A Paredes, ‘Mine Design and Environmental Assessment’ (Impact Assessment and Responsible Development for Infrastructure, Business and Industry, Puebla, Mexico, 2011).
Australian and New Zealand Minerals and Energy Council and Minerals Council of Australia, 'Strategic Framework for Mine Closure' (2000) http://www.sernageomin.cl/pdf/material/StrategicFrameworkMineClosure.pdf
J Stacey et al, 'The Socio-Economic Aspects of Mine Closure and Sustainable Development-Guideline for the Socio-Economic Aspects of Closure: Report 2' (2010) 110 The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Minng and Metalurgy 395.
D Van Zyl at al, 'Mining for the Future Main Report' (International Institute for Environment and Development, 2002) .
J Bhattacharya, Principles of Mine Planning (Allied Publishers, 2007).
Centre for Sustainabilty in Mining and Industry, 'The Socio Economic Aspects of Mine Closure and Sustainable Development: Literature Overview and Lessons for the Socio-Economic Aspect of Closure Report 1 of 2' (Coaltech, project 7.8.5, 2010) http://www.coaltech.co.za/chamber%20databases/coaltech/Com_DocMan.nsf/0/
M Haney and M Shkaratan, 'Mine Closure and its Impact on the Community: Five Years after Mine Closure in Romania, Russia and Ukraine' (World Bank, 2003) ; D Hegadoren and J Day, 'Socioeconomic Mine Termination Policies: A Case Study of Mine Closure in Ontario' (1981) 7(4) Resources Policy 265
A James, S van Niekerk and B Stobart, 'Mine Closure Planning – Time for a Holistic Approach' (2005) 13(8) Civil Engineering: Magazine of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering 20
M Johnston, B Lorch and D Challen, 'Views of Community Sustainability After a Mine Closure: A Case Study of Manitouwadge, Ontario' (2004) 32(1) Environments 15.
R Hodge, 'Mining's Seven Questions to Sustainability: From Mittigating Impacts to Encouraging Contribution’ (2004) 27(3) Episodes 177.
J Davies, Y Maru and T May, 'Enduring Community Value from Mining: Conceptual Framework' (Working Paper cw007, Ninti One Limited, 2012) .
Minerals Council Australia, 'Enduring Value the Australian Minerals Industry Framework for Sustainable Development' (Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources, Canberra, 2005).
International Council for Mining and Metals, '10 Princples of Sustainable Development Performance' (Intenational Council for Mining and Metals, 2003) .
J Lacey, R Parsons and K Moffat, 'Exploring the Concept of a Social Licence to Operate in the Australian Minerals Industry: Results from Interviews with Industry Representatives' (EP125553, CSIRO, October 2012).
A Carroll, 'Corporate Social Responsibility: Evolution of a Definitional Construct' (1999) 38(3) Business and Society 268.
R Hamann, 'Mining Companies' Role in Sustainable Development: The 'Why' and 'How' of Corporate Social Responsibility from a Business Perspective' (2003) 20(2) (2003/06/01) Development Southern Africa 237.
H Dashwood, 'Canadian Mining Companies and the Shaping of Global Norms of Corporate Social Responsibility' (2005) 60(4) International Journal 977, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/40204094
Hevina S Dashwood, 'CSR norms and Organizational Learning in the Mining Sector' (2012) 12(1) Corporate Governance 118.
Lacey, Parsons and Moffat, above n 31.
J Nelsen, 'Social License to Operate' (2006) 20(3) International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment 161, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17480930600804182
K Wilburn and R Wilburn, 'Achieving Social License to Operate Using Stakeholder Theory' (2011) 4(2) Journal of International Business Ethics 3.
R Boutilier and I Thomson, 'Modelling and Measuring the Social License to Operate: Fruits of a Dialogue Between Theory and Practice' (2011) 10
J Owen and D Kemp, 'Social Licence and Mining: A Critical Perspective' (2013) 38(1) Resources Policy 29. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2012.06.016
M Smith, R Krannich and L Hunter, ‘Growth, Decline, Stability, and Disruption: A Longitudinal Analysis of Social Well-being in Four Western Rural Communities’ (2001) 66 Rural Sociology 425, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1549-0831.2001.tb00075.x
A Warhurst and L Noronha, 'Corporate Strategy and Viable Future Land Use: Planning for Closure from the Outset of Mining' (2000) 24(2) Natural Resources Forum 153, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-8947.2000.tb00939.x
C O'Faircheallaigh, 'Mine Closures in Remote Regions: Policy Options and Implications' in C Neil, M Tykkyläinen and J Bradbury (eds), Coping with Closure: An International Comparison of Mine Town Experiences (Routledge, 1992).
D Laurence, 'Optimisation of the Mine Closure Process' (2006) 14(3–4) Journal of Cleaner Production 285, doi:10.1016/j/jclepro.2004.04.011.
H Clemenson, 'Are Single Industry Towns Diversifying? A Look at Fishing, Mining and Wood-Based Communities' (1992) 4(1) Perspectives on Labour and Income 50.
C O’Faircheallaigh, 'Economic Base and Employment Structure in Northern Territory Mining Towns' in T B Brealey, C C Neil and P W Newtown (eds), Resource Communities Settlement and Workforce Issues (CSIRO, 1988)
L Till, 'Old Mines Never Die...they Become Garbage Dumps' (1990) 76(34) The Northern Miner.
Northland Power, Northland power
J Kuyek and C Coumans, 'No Rock Unturned: Revitalizing the Economics of Mining Dependant Communities' (MiningWatch Canada, 2003).
J Mallo at al, 'Aquaculture: An Alternative Option for the Rehabilitation of Old Mine Pits in the Pampasian Region, Southeast of Buenos Aires, Argentina' (2010) 29(4) Mine Water and the Environment 285, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10230-010-0120-6
Veolia Environmental Services Australia, Bioreactor Landfill Technology, Resource Recovery and Sustainability .
B Kynoch, 'Mining Heat' (2010) 51(3) Canadian Consulting Engineer 18.
R Pilgram, 'Normalisation of the Pilbara Townships in Western Australia' in T B Brealey, C C Neil and P W Newtown (eds), Resource Communities: Settlement and Workforce Issues (CSIRO, 1988) 245.
A Lucas, Life in Canadian Communities of Single Industry (Universtiy of Toronto Press, 1971).
J Bradbury, 'Living with Boom and Bust cycles: New Towns on the Resource Frontier in Canada, 1945-1986' in T B Brealey, C C Neil and P W Newtown (eds), Resource Communities: Settlement and Workforce Issues (CSIRO Australia, 1988) 3.
I Robinson and P Newton, 'Settlement Options for Non-Renewable Resource Development in Canada and Austrlalia: A Comparative Evaluation and Decision Framework' in T B Brealey, C C Neil and P W Newtown (eds), Resource Communities: Settlement and Workforce Issues (CSIRO, 1988).
P Parker, 'The Cost of Remote Locations: Queensland Coal Towns' in T B Brealey, C C Neil and P W Newtown (eds), Resource Communities: Settlement and Workforce Issues (CSIRO, 1988).
K Carrington and R Hogg, 'Benefits and Burdens of the Mining Boom for Rural Communities' (2011) (in press) Human Rights Defender; K Carrington and M Pereira, 'Assessing the Social Impacts of the Resources Boom on Rural Communities' (2011) 21(1) Rural Society 2, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5172/rsj.2011.21.1.2
F Haslam McKenzie et al, 'Housing Market Dynamics in Resource Boom Towns' (No 135, AHURI, 2009)
M Lawrie, M Tonts and P Plummer, 'Boomtowns, Resource Dependence and Socio-Economic Well-Being' (2011) 42(2) Australian Geographer 139, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00049182.2011.569985
S Lockie at al, 'Coal Mining and the Resource Community Cycle: A Longitudinal Assessment of the Social Impacts of the Coppabella Coal Mine' (2009) 29 Envronmental Impact Assessent Review 330, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2009.01.008
J Rolfe at al, 'Lessons from the Social and Economic Impacts of the Mining Boom in the Bowen Basin 2004–2006' (2007) 13(2) Australasian Journal of Regional Studies 134.
M Langton and O Mazel, 'Poverty in the Midst of Plenty: Aboriginal People, the “Resource Curse” and Australia’s Mining Boom ' (2008) 26(1) Journal of Energy and Natural Resources Law 31.
M Langton and O Mazel, 'The Resource Curse Compared: Australian Aboriginal Participation in the Resource Extraction Industry and Distribution of Impacts' in M Langton and J Longbottom (eds), Community Futures, Legal Architecture: Foundations for Indigenous Peoples in the Global Mining Boom (Routledge, 2012) 23.
J Altman, 'Contestations over development' in J Altman and D Martin (eds), Power, Culture, Economy: Indigenous Australians and Mining (The Australian National University, 2009).
C O'Faircheallaigh, 'Curse or Opportunity? Mineral Revenues, Rent Seeking and Development in Aboriginal Australia' in M Langton and J Longbottom (eds), Community Futures, Legal Architecture: Foundations for Indigenous Peoples in the Global Mining Boom (Routledge, 2012) 45.
G Gibson and J Klinck, 'Canada's Resilient North: The Impact of Mining on Aborignal Communities' (2005) 3(1) Pimatisiwin: A Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health 116.
D Richardson, The Benefits of the Mining Boom: Where Did They Go? (Technical Brief No 3 edn, The Australian Institute, 2009).
M Friedman and R Friedman, Free to Choose: A Personal Statement (Harcourt 1990).