Discourses of Anti-corruption in Mexico. Culture of Corruption or Corruption of Culture?

Gabriela Coronado


Abstract

In the context of global capitalism the so-called developing countries are considered ‘commodities’ in offer in the global economy as emerging markets or for foreign investment. Countries need to show they are potentially highly competitive with low risk. The value of country characteristics is set by globalised managerial discourses, based on postcolonial ideologies that rate cultures and societies in terms of linear notions of progress and civilisation. Cultures and behaviours are judged positively or negatively according to the position countries supposedly have in the evolution of world society. In this framework one element that countries need to eradicate or reduce in order to be seen as ‘attractive’ is corruption. Towards this aim international and national government and non-government organisations have put in place anti-corruption campaigns. In communications with the general public, these schemes represent actors and acts of corruption through discursive strategies that characterize world cultures and their links with corruption in terms of postcolonial ideologies. In this paper I focus on the implications of the metaphor ‘culture of corruption’ for rating countries, questioning its effectiveness in anti-corruption campaigns. I argue that anti-corruption instruments based on postcolonial ideologies corrupt representations of national cultures and peoples behaviours, instead of targeting local and global sectors that gain from institutionalised corruption. Through the analysis of anti-corruption cultural texts publicly available in Mexico I illustrate how the ideological misrepresentation of corruption fails its stated aim, to transform a ‘culture of corruption’ into a ‘culture of legality’.

Keywords

discourse; postcolonial ideology; culture; corruption; transparency; Mexico.

Full Text

PDF

References

Alvesson, M. 1993, Cultural Perspectives on Organizations. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Bartra, G., Kaufmann, D., and Stone A.H.W. 2003, World Business Environment Survey Findings. World Bank Publications, Washington, D.C.

Bull, M.J. and Nevel, J.L. (eds.), 2003, Corruption in Contemporary Politics, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Chiapelo, E. and Fairclough, N. 2002, 'Understanding The New Management Ideology: A Transdisciplinary Contribution from Critical Discourse Analysis and New Sociology of Capitalism, ' Discourse & Society, vol. 13, no. 2, 185-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0957926502013002406

Coronado, G. (forthcoming), 'Constructing the Postcolonial" Manager. Orientalising Latin America in the Textbooks' in Prasad, A (ed.), Against the Grain: Advances in Postcolonial Organization Studies. Organization Studies Series, Liber & Copenhagen Business School Press, Copenhagen."

Covarrubias Gonzlez, I. 2003, 'El impacto de la corrupcin en el proceso de democratizacin de Mxico. Una propuesta de anlisis, ' Revista Probidad, vol. 24, 1-14.

Davis, J.H. and Ruhe, J.A. 2003, 'Perceptions of Country Corruption. Antecedents and Outcomes, ' Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 43, no. 4, 275-88 http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023038901080

Del Castillo, A. and Guerrero, M.A. 2003, Percepciones de la corrupcin en la ciudad de Mxico. Online, Available: http://presupuestoygastopublico.org/documentos/transparencia/DT_134.pdf. (Accessed 23 Jan. 2007).

During, S. 2000, 'Postcolonialism and Globalization: Towards a Historicization of Their Inter-relation, ' Cultural Studies, vol. 14, no. 3/4, 385404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502380050130392

Elliot, K.A. 1997, Corruption and the Global Economy. Institute for International Economics, Washington, D.C.

Escobar, R.E. 2004, 'Corrupcin en Mxico: Mal o vicio de muchos, ' Foro: Presidencia de la Repblica, 10 abril. Online, Available: http://foros.fox.presidencia.gob.mx/read.php?13, 163892 (accessed 13 Feb. 2007).

Foucault, M. 1971, 'Orders of Discourse' Social Science Information, vol.10, no. 2, 7-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/053901847101000201

Fougere, M. and Moulettes, A. forthcoming, 'Cross-Cultural Management Discourse Ideas of Democracy, Development, Modernity and Progress in Hofstede's Culture's Consequences, ' Prasad, A (ed.), Against the Grain: Advances in Postcolonial Organization Studies. Organization Studies Series, Liber & Copenhagen Business School Press.

Harrison L.E and Huntington, S.P. (eds.) 2000, Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress. Basic Books, New York.

Heidenheimer, A., Johnston, M., and LeVine, V.T. (eds.) 1989 Political Corruption: A Handbook. Transaction Books, New Jersey.

Hodge, B., and Coronado, G. 2006, 'Mexico Inc? Discourse Analysis and the Triumph of Managerialism, ' Organization, vol. 16, no.4, 529-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508406065104

Hofstede, G. 2001[1980], Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values. 2nd ed. Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.

Hofstede, G. and Hofstede, G.J. 2005, Cultures and Organizations. Software of the Mind. McGraw Hill, New York.

INEGI 2005, Resultados definitivos del II conteo de poblacin y vivienda para el Estado de Chiapas. Mxico: Instituto Nacional de Estadstica Geografa e Informtica. Online, Available: http://www.inegi.gov.mx (accessed 5 Feb 2007).

Kotler, P., Haider, D., and Rein, I. 1993, Marketing Places. The Free Press, New York.

La Jornada 2002, 'Podran seguir en la inercia de la cultura de la corrupcin, se-ala Bravo Mena, ' 10 Feb. Online, Available: http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2002/02/10/008n1pol.php (Accessed 13/02/2007).

Lambsdorff, J.G. 2004, Framework Document: Background Paper to the 2004 Corruption Perception Index. 2004. Transparency International and University of Passau, Online, Available: http://www.ICGG.org?downoloads/2004_CPI_FD.pdf. (Accessed 14 August 2005).

Lomnitz, C. (coord.) 2000, Vicios pblicos, virtudes privadas. La corrupcin en Mxico. CIESAS/Porra, Mxico D.F.

Morgan, G. 1998, Images of Organization. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Morris, S. 1991, Corruption and Politics in Contemporary Mexico. University of Alabama Press, Tuscalosa.

Morris, S. 2000, 'La poltica acostumbrada" o "poltica inslita"? El problema de la corrupcin en el Mxico contemporneo, ' in Vicios pblicos, virtudes privadas. La corrupcin en Mxico. Lomnitz, C. (coord.), CIESAS/Porra, Mexico City, 221-237."

Porter, M. 2001 [1990], The Competitive Advantage of Nations. Free Press, New York.

Robinson, M. (ed) 1998, Corruption and Development. Routledge, New York

Rose-Akerena, S. 1999, Corruption and Government. Causes, Consequences, and Reform. Cambridge http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139175098

University Press, Cambridge.

Said, E. 1978, Orientalism. Penguin, Harmondsworth.

Seligson, M. 2002, 'The Impact of Corruption on Regime Legitimacy: A Comparative Study of Four Latin American Countries, ' The Journal of Politics, vol. 64, no. 2, 408-433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2508.00132

Semo, E. 2000, 'De la colonia a la independencia: la lnea imaginaria entre lo pblico y lo privado contemporneo, ' in Vicios pblicos, virtudes privadas. La corrupcin en Mxico. Lomnitz C. (coord.), CIESAS/Porra, Mexico City, 65-85.

Spich, R. 1995, 'Globalization Folklore: Problems of Myth and Ideology in the Discourse on Globalization, ' Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 8, no. 4, 6-29 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09534819510090196

Theobald, R. 1990, Corruption, Development and Underdevelopment. Duke University Press, Durham.

Transparencia Mexicana 2005, 'Measuring Corruption in Public Service Delivery: The Experience of Mexico.' Online, Available: http://www.globalcorruptionreport.org.gcr2005/download/English/corruption_in_ practice.pdf (accessed 14 Aug 2005).

Transparency International 2004, Transparency International Corruption Perception Index 2004, pp. 1-8, Online, Available: http//www.transparency.org (Accessed: 14 August 2005).

Valverde Loya, M.A. n/d, 'La corrupcin en Mxico y el entorno Internacional.' Juripolis Online. Online, Available: http://www.ccm.itesm.mx/dhes/juripolis/archivos/avalverde (Accessed 25 Jan. 2007).

Westwood, R. 2006, 'International Business and Management Studies as an Orientalist Discourse: A Postcolonial Critique, ' Critical Perspectives on International Business, vol. 2, no. 2, 91-113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17422040610661280

Woodward, D. 2005, Australia Unsettled. The Legacy of 'Neo-liberalism.' Pearson, Frenchs Forest, Sydney.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM