Soldiers, Artisans, Cultivators and Revolutionaries: The Movement of Sikhs in the Indian Ocean
Keywords: Sikhs, Indian Ocean, labour migration, cultural identity
Allen, M. 2008, 'A Fine Type of Hindoo" Meets the "Australian Type": British Indians in Australia and Diverse Masculinities, ' in Transnational Ties: Australian Lives in the World, (eds) D. Deacon, P. Russell & A. Woollacott, ANU E-Press, Canberra, pp.4158."
Anderson, C. 2006, 'Convict Migration, ' in The Encyclopedia of Indians Overseas (eds) B. Lal et al., Editions Didier Millet & Landmark Books, Singapore.
Ashraf, Ch. M. (ed.) 1995, Officers of the Punjab Commission. NEDA Publishers, Lahore.
Bagoo, A.K. 1954, Academic Exercise. The Origin and Growth of the Malayan States. University of Malaya, Singapore.
Bate, J. 1978, Wheels Over Black Cotton. Stockwell, Ilfracombe.
Bedi, R.S. 2001, 'The Earliest Arrival of Sikhs in Malaya, ' paper presented at the Colloquium on 'Indians in PenangA Historical Perspective, ' organised by the Penang Heritage Trust & the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Penang, 22 September.
Bhatti, R. & Dusenbery, V.A. (eds) 2001, A Punjabi Sikh Community in Australia: From Indian Sojourners to Australian Citizens. Woolgoolga Neighbourhood Centre Inc., Woolgoolga.
Bickers, R. & Henriot, C. (eds) 2009, New Frontiers: Imperialism's New Communities in East Asia, 18421953. Manchester University Press, Manchester.
Blixen, K. 1993, Out of Africa and Shadows on the Grass. Penguin, Delhi.
Chandan, A. 1998, 'How They Suffered: World War I and its Impact on Punjabis, ' paper presented at 'Across the Black Waters, ' a one-day symposium at the Imperial War Museum, London, November 7. Online, available: http://apnaorg.com/articles/amarjit/wwi/ (Accessed 27 October 2009).
Cell, J.W. 2002, Hailey. A Study in British Imperialism 18721969. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Chapman, G. 2003, The Geopolitics of South Asia: From Early Empires to the Nuclear Age. Ashgate, Aldershot.
Chin, C. 2009, 'Of Prisoners and Peacekeepers, ' The Star online, Friday 15 May. Online, available: http://allmalaysia.info/2009/05/18/of-prisoners-and-peacekeepers/ (Accessed 23 October 2009).
Cohen, R. (ed.) 1995, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511598289
Darling, M.L. 1984 , Punjab Peasant Life. With a Foreword by Sir Edward Maclagan, Oxford University Press, Milford & Cosmo, New Delhi.
Das, R.N. 1990, 'A Nationality Issue: Ethnic Indians in Hong Kong, ' in The Other Hong Kong Report 1990, (ed.) R.V.C. Wong & J.Y.S. Cheng, Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, 14767.
Devadas, Vijay 2006, 'The Kangani and Maistry System, ' in The Encyclopedia of Indians Overseas (eds) B. Lal et al., Editions Didier Millet & Landmark Books, Singapore, 5357.
Douie, J. 1916, The Panjab, North-West Frontier Province And Kashmir. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Edwardes, H. 1851, A Year on the Punjab Frontier, 184849. 2 vols. Richard Bentley, London.
Foran, W.R. 1933, Kill or Be Killed. Hutchinson and Co., London.
Foran, W.R. 1936, A Cuckoo in Kenya. The Reminiscences of a Pioneer Police Officer in British East Africa, with a Foreword by Lord Cranworth. Hutchinson, London.
Forster, E.M. (ed. O. Stallybrass with an Introduction by P. Mishra) 1986, A Passage to India. Penguin Classic, Toronto.
Gandharab, S.S. 1986, Early Sikh Pioneers of Singapore. Sewa Singh Gandharab, Singapore.
Gilmartin, D. 1995, 'Migration and Modernity: The State, the Punjabi Village, and the Partition of the Punjab, ' South Asia, vol. 18 (Special Issue): 5772.
Gilmartin, D. 2004, 'Migration and Modernity: The State, the Punjabi Village, and the Settling of the Canal Colonies, ' in People On The Move: Punjabi Colonial, and Post-Colonial Migration, (eds) I. Talbot & S.r Thandi, Oxford University Press, Karachi, 320.
Goodall, H., Ghosh, D. & Todd, L. 2008, 'Jumping Ship, Skirting Empire: Indians, Aborigines, Australians across the Indian Ocean, ' Transforming Cultures eJournal, vol. 3, no. 1: 4474.
Gullick, J.M.1953, 'Captain Speedy of Larut, ' J.M.B.R.A.S., vol. 26, no. 3, in 1971, Some Historical Notes (Malaysian Sikhs). N.p., West Malaya.
Jackson, F. 1930, Early Days in East Africa. Edward Arnold & Co., London.
Harrison, C.W. 1923, An Illustrated Guide to the Federated Malay States. The Malay States Development Agency, London.
Ibbetson, D. 1974, Panjab Castes. B.R. Publishing Corp., Delhi.
Jackson, I. 2012, 'The Raj on Nanjing Road: Sikh Policemen in Treaty-Port Shanghai, ' Modern Asian Studies: doi:10.1017/S0026749X12000078. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0026749X12000078
Kaur, A. 2003, The Role of Sikhs in the Policing of Malaya and the Straits Settlements. Unpublished M.A. thesis, National University of Singapore.
Kaur, A. 2009, Sikhs in the Policing of British Malaya and Straits Settlements (18741957). VDM Verlag Dr Muller, Saarbrucken.
Keezhangatte, J.J. 2008, 'Blue-collar Indians in Hong Kong: Imperceptible Yet Important in Hong Kong, ' in Rising India and Indian Communities in East Asia, (eds) K. Kesavapany, A. Mani, & P. Ramasamy, Institute of East Asian Studies, Singapore, pp.207228.
Kesavapany, K., Mani, A., & Ramasamy, P. (eds) 2008, Rising India and Indian Communities in East Asia. Institute of East Asian Studies, Singapore.
Kipling, R. 1999, 'A Sahib's War and Other Stories, ' in War Stories and Poems. Oxford University Press, London, pp.16380.
Kumar, S. 2008, 'Linkages between the Ethnic Diaspora and the Sikh Ethno-National Movement in India, ' Faultlines, vol. 19. Online, available: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/publication/faultlines/volume19/Article4.htm/ (Accessed 23October 2009).
Lal, B.V. (ed.) 2006, The Encyclopedia of the Indian Diaspora. Didier Millet, Singapore.
Lopo-Dhalliwal, M.S. 1971, Some Historical Notes (Malaysian Sikhs). N.p., West Malaya.
Markham, B. 1984 , West with the Night. Virago, London.
Mazumder, R. 2003, The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab. Permanent Black, Delhi.
McLeod, W.H. 2003, Sikhs of the Khalsa: a History of the Khalsa Rahit. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
Metcalf, T.R. 2007, Imperial connections: India in the Indian Ocean Arena, 18601920. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Moving Here Catalogue. Online, available: WO97/5281_2 www.movinghere.org.uk/galleries/roots/.../servicerecords.htm (Accessed 26 October 2009).
Mukherjee, B. & Qin, X. 'Lording over the Locals: When Red Turbans were a Familiar Sight, ' ShanghaiDaily.com. Online, available: http://www.shanghaidaily.com/sp/article/2009/200908/20090812/article_4103 (Accessed 26 October 2009).
Oberoi, Harjot 1994, The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
Oldenburg, V. 2002, Dowry Murder: The Imperial Origins of a Cultural Crime. Oxford University Press, New York.
Patterson, J.H. 1907, The Man Eaters of Tsavo. MacMillan, London.
Rai, R. 2006, 'Indians in Singapore, ' in The Encyclopedia of the Indian Diaspora (eds) B.V. Lal, P. Reeves & R. Rai, Editions Didier Millet, Singapore, 17688.
Sandhu, D. S. n.d. The Sikh Regiment. Online, available: http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/MONITOR/ISSUE3-6/sandhu.html (Accessed 26 October 2009).
Sandhu, K.S. 2006, 'Sikhs in Malaysia: A Society in Transition, ' in Indian Communities in South East Asia, (eds) K. S. Sandhu & A. Mani, Institute of South East Asian Studies, Singapore, pp. 55767.
Sandhu, K.S. & A. Mani (eds) 2006, Indian Communities in South East Asia. Institute of South East Asian Studies, Singapore.
Sikhs of East Africa. Online, available: www.sikh-heritage.co.uk/heritage/sikhhert%20EAfrica/sikhsEAfrica.htm (Accessed 26 October 2009).
Talbot, I. 2007, 'The Punjab under Colonialism: Order and Transformation in British India, ' Journal of Punjab Studies, vol. 14, no.1: 310.
Talbot, I. & Thandi, S. 2004, People on the Move: Punjabi Colonial and Post-Colonial Migration. Oxford University Press, London.
Tatla, D.S. 1995, 'Sikh Free and Military Migration During the Colonial Period, ' in The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, (ed.) Robin Cohen, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 6973.
Tatla, D.S. 2004, 'The Rural Roots of the Sikh Diaspora, ' in People on the Move: Punjabi Colonial, and Post-Colonial Migration, (eds) I. Talbot & S. Thandi, Oxford University Press, London, 4559.
Thandi, S. 2006, 'Punjabi Diaspora and Homeland Relations.' Online, available: http://www.india-seminar.com/2006/567/567_shinder_s_thandi.htm (Accessed 23 October 2009).
'The 47th (now the 5th) Regiment, ' Jullundur Brigade Association. Online, available: www.jullundurassociation.org/index.php?option (Accessed 26 October 2009).
Thorburn, S.S. 1876, India Civil Service, Settlement Officer of the Bannu District. Bannu; or Our Afghan Frontier. Trtjbneit & Co. 57 & 59, Ludgate Hill, London.
Vandal, P.1846, The Illustrated London News, 28 March.
Wallerstein, I. 1974, The Modern World-System, vol. I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. Academic Press, New York & London.
Winstedt, R.O. 1934, 'History of Selangor, ' J.M.B.R.A.S. vol. 12, in Lopo-Dhalliwal 1971, Some Historical Notes (Malaysian Sikhs). N.p., West Malaya.
Yong, T.T. 2005, The Garrison State: Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849-1947. Sage, Delhi.