Collective Action of 'Others' in Sydney

Walter F Lalich


Abstract

Various ethnic communities undertake collective action to satisfy their social needs in a place of settlement. Collectively created social resources are representative of the patterns of fragmented ethnic collective actions that differ in their capability to appropriate human and material resources, orientation, outcome, form and intensity. Through collective creation of social space migrants add a new and dynamic dimension to the social environment. During the dramatic post-1945 changes in Sydney demographic and cultural structures, over 450 “other” (ethnic) collectives mobilised through grass-roots efforts their scarce resources and created needed collective goods, such as places of worship, clubs, schools, age care facilities. In this way, through creation of communal roots ethnic collectives navigate the path between exclusion and the various forms of inclusion in a dynamic culturally diverse society. Ethnic communal places signify collective conscience, participation, and the embeddedness of transplanted cultures in a transforming social environment and transnational social space.

Keywords

collective action, migration, settlement, ethnicity, communal place

Full Text

PDF

References

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001, 2001 Census Statistics, Canberra.

Baumol, W. J. & Blinder, A. S. 1985, Economics: Principles and Policy, 3rd ed., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York.

Betts, K. 1999, The Great Divide, Duffy & Snellgrove, Sydney.

Bourdieu, P. 1993, Sociology in Question, trans. R. Nice, Sage Publications, London.

Brennan, D. 1998, The Politics of Australian Child Care: Philanthropy to Feminism and Beyond, Rev. ed., Cambridge University Press, Melbourne. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511597091

Breton, R. 1964, 'Institutional completeness of ethnic communities and the personal relations of immigrants', American Journal of Sociology, 70.2, 193-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/223793

Buchanan, J. 1987, Public Finance in Democratic Process: Fiscal Institutions and Individual Choice, University of North Caroline Press, Chapel Hill.

Buchanan, J. M. & Tullock, G. 1965, The Calculus of Consent: Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy, Ann Arbor Paperbacks, Ann Arbor.

Burnley, I. H. 2001, The Impact of Immigration on Australia: A Demographic Approach, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Burnley, I. H., Murphy, P. & Fagan, R. 1997, Immigration and Australian Cities, The Federation Press, Sydney.

Cashman, R. 1995, Paradise of Sport: The Rise of Organised Sport in Australia, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Centre for International Economics (CIE) 1992, Immigration and the Commonwealth Budget, Bureau of Immigration Research/ AGPS, Canberra.

Chinitz, B. & Tiebout, C. M. 1964, 'The role of cost-benefit analysis in the public sector of metropolitan areas' in Urban Public Expenditures, ed. J. Margolis, Resource for the Future/John Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

Cirevski, K. 1999, Makedoncite vo Novata Tatkovina, No Pub., Sydney.

Coleman, J. S. 1990, Foundations of Social Theory, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Collins, J. 1984, 'Immigration and class' in Ethnicity, Class and Gender in Australia, (eds) G. Bottomley and M. de Lepervanche, Allen & Unwin, Sydney.

Coughlan, J. E. & McNamara, D. J. (eds) 1997, Asians in Australia: Patterns of Migration and Settlement, Macmillan, Melbourne.

Cox, D. 1975, 'The role of ethnic groups in migrant welfare' in Welfare of Migrants, Commission of Inquiry into Poverty/ AGPS, Canberra.

Cox, D. 1987, Migration and Welfare: An Australian Perspective, Prentice Hall, Sydney.

Cutts, L. 1992, Immigration and Local Government Budgets, BIR/ AGPS, Canberra.

Dilnot, A. 1997, 'Crisis in welfare' in Welfare and Values: Challenging the Culture of Unconcern, eds P. Askonas and S. F. Frowen, MacMillan, London.

Dunn, K. 2001, 'Representations of Islam in the politics of mosque development in Sydney', Tijdschrift voor Economische en Soziale Geografie, 92.3, 291-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9663.00158

Durkheim, E. 1964, The Division of Labor in Society. trans. G. Simpson, The Free Press, New York.

Ethnic Affairs Commission (EAC) 1998, The People of New South Wales: Statistics from the 1996 Census, New South Wales Government, Sydney.

Frank, R.H. 1997, Microeconomics and Behaviour, 3rd ed, Irwin/McGraw Hill, Boston.

Galbally, F. 1978, Migrant Services and Programs: Report of the Review of Post-Arrival Programs and Services for Migrants, AGPS, Canberra.

Gamm, G. & Putnam, R. D. 2001, 'The growth of voluntary associations in America, 1840-1940' in Patterns of Social Capital: Stability and Change in Historical Perspective, ed. R. I. Rotberg, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hage, G. 1998, White Nation: Fantasies of White Supremacy in a Multicultural Society, Pluto Press, Sydney.

Hannerz, U. 1974, 'Ethnicity and opportunity in urban America' in Urban Ethnicity, ed A. Cohen, Tavistock, London.

Hardin, R. 1982, Collective Action, The John Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

Harvey, D.1973, Social Justice and the City, Edward Arnold, London.

Harvey, D. 1989, The Urban Experience, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

Hechter, M. 1987, Principles of Group Solidarity, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Hechter, M., Friedman, D. & Appelbaum, M. 1982, 'A theory of ethnic collective action', International Migration Review, 16.2, 412-434. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2545105

Henderson, R. F., Harcourt, A. & Harper, R.J.A .1970, People in Poverty: A Melbourne Survey, Chesire, Melbourne.

Ironmonger, D. 2000, 'Measuring volunteering in economic terms' in Volunteers and Volunteering, eds J. Warburton and M. Oppenheimer, The Federation Press, Sydney.

Jamrozik, A. 1983, The New Polish Immigrants: A Quest for Normal Life, Polish Task Force / EAC NSW, Sydney.

Jakubowicz, A. 1989, 'Normalising aliens": The Australian welfare state and the control of immigrant settlement' in Australian Welfare-Historical Sociology, ed. R. Kennedy, The MacMillan, Melbourne."

Jakubowicz, A., Morrisey, M. & Palser, J.M. 1984, Ethnicity, Class and Social Policy in Australia, UNSW Social Welfare Research Unit, Sydney.

Jupp, J.1991, Immigration, Australian Retrospectives, Sydney University Press, Sydney.

Jupp, J. (ed.) 2001, The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and their Origins, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.

Jupp, J. 2002, From White Australia to Woomera; The Story of Australian Immigration, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.

Kinarah Special Commemorative Issue 1980, Sydney.

Korban, R. 1994, 40 Lat Klubu Sportowego-Polonia, Sydney.

Kunz, E. F. 1988, Displaced Persons; Calwell's New Australians, The ANU Press, Sydney.

Lalich, W. F. 2004, Ethnic Community Capital: The Development of Ethnic Social Infrastructure in Sydney, Unpublished Ph D Thesis, University of Technology, Sydney.

Lewins, F. W. 1978, The Myth of the Universal Church: Catholic Migrants in Australia, ANU Faculty of Arts, Canberra.

Logan, M. I., Whitelow, J. S. & McKay, J. 1981, Urbanization: the Australian Experience, Shillington House Melbourne.

Lopez, M. 2000, The Origins of Multiculturalism in Australian Politics 1945-1975, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.

Luchmann, N. 1995, Social Systems, trans. J. Bednarz, Jr. and D. Baecker, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

Lyons, M. 1994, Australia's Nonprofit Sector, Working Paper Series, No.13, 2nd ed., UTS/CACOM, Sydney.

Margo, J. 2000, Frank Lowy: Pushing the limits, HarperCollins, Sydney.

Martin, J. 1978, The Migrant Presence, Allen & Unwin, Sydney.

Martin, J. 1981, 'Ethnic pluralism and identity' in The Ethnic Dimension, (ed) S. Encel, Allen & Unwin, Sydney.

Melucci, A. 1996, Challenging Codes, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511520891

Mosely, P. A. 1997, 'The Italian Community' in Sporting Immigrants, (eds) P. A. Mosely, R. Cashman, J. O'Hara and H. Weatherburn, Walla Walla Press, Sydney.

Mosely, P. A., Cashman, R., O'Hara, J. & Weatherburn, H. (eds) 1997, Sporting Immigrants: Sport and Ethnicity in Australia. Walla Walla Press, Sydney.

Murphy, P. A. et al 1990, Impact of Immigration on Urban Infrastructure, AGPS/BIR, Canberra.

Olson, M. 1965, The Logic of Collective Action, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Parsons, T. & Shils, E. (eds) 1962, Towards a General Theory of Action: Theoretical Foundations for Social Sciences, Harper and Row, New York.

Pile, S. 1997, 'Opposition, political identities and spaces of resistance' in Geographies of Resistance, eds S. Pile.and M. Keith, Routledge, London.

Polanyi, K. 1957, The Great Transformation, Beacon Press, Boston.

Portes, A. (ed.) 1995, The Economic Sociology of Immigration: Essays on Networks, Ethnicity, and Entrepreneurship, Russell Sage Foundation, New York.

Powell, D. 1993, Out West: Perceptions of Sydney's Western Suburbs, Allen & Unwin, Sydney.

Price, C. (ed.) 1979, Australian Immigration: A Bibliography and Digest, No.4, The ANU, Department of Demography, Canberra.

Putnam, R. D. 1993, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.

Putnam, R. D. 2000, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, Simon & Schuster, New York.

Relph, E. 1976, Place and Placelessness, Pion Ltd, London.

Russian Orthodox Church Archangel Michael 1984, 25th Anniversary, Blacktown.

Said, E. W. 1983, The World, the Text, and the Critic, Faber and Faber, London.

Smith, M.P. & Guarnizo, L. E. (eds) 1998, Transnationalism From Below, Transaction Publications, New Brunswick, N.J.

Spearritt, P. 1978, Sydney Since the Twenties. Hale and Iremonger, Sydney.

Stiglitz, J. E. 2000, Economics of the Public Sector, W. W. Norton & Company, New York.

Thompson, E. 1994, Fair Enough: Egalitarianism in Australia, UNSW Press, Sydney.

Viviani, N. 1984, The Long Journey: Vietnamese Migration and Settlement in Australia, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.

Zukin, S.1992, 'Postmodern urban landscape: mapping culture and power' in Modernity and Identity, eds S. Lash and J. Friedman, Blackwell, Oxford.

Zukin, S. 1995, The Cultures of Cities, Blackwell, Oxford.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM