‘If Most Men are Against Us, Can We Call Ourselves Feminists?’: Young People’s Views of Feminism – East and West

Chilla Bulbeck


Abstract

Based on a survey of 1700 largely young middle-class urban dwellers in ten countries in the Asia-Pacific region, this paper explores several dualist constructions of feminism.

Keywords

Women

Full Text

PDF

References

Bail, K. 1996, 'Introduction', in DIY Feminism, K. Bail (ed.), Allen and Unwin, Sydney.

Bellafante, G. 1998, 'Feminism: it's all about me', Time, 29 June, 54-60.

Braidotti, R. 2005, 'A critical cartography of feminist post-postmodernism', Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 20, no. 47, 169-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08164640500090319

Braithwaite, V. 1998, 'Designing the process of workplace change through the Affirmative Action Act' in Gender and Institutions: Welfare, Work and Citizenship, M. Gatens and A. Mackinnon (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Brasted, H.V. 2000, 'Piecing together the jigsaw: Indian women in the urban wage workforce', Asian Studies Review, vol. 24, no. 2, 195-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10357820008713269

Briskin, L. 1999, 'Mapping women's organizing in Sweden and Canada: some thematic considerations' in Women's Organizing and Public Policy in Canada and Sweden, L. Briskin and M. Eliasson (eds), McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal and Kingston.

Bulbeck, C. 2005, 'Gender policies: hers to his' in Ideas and Influence: Social Science and Public Policy in Australia, P. Saunders and J. Walter (eds), University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, in press.

Chaudhuri, M. 2000, 'Feminism" in print media', Indian Journal of Gender Studies, vol. 7, no. 2, 263-288." http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/097152150000700208

Connell, R.W. 2000, The Men and the Boys, Allen and Unwin, Sydney.

Cook, N. 1998, 'Dutiful daughters", estranged sisters: women in Thailand' in Gender and Power in Affluent Asia, K. Sen and M. Stivens (eds), Routledge, London and New York."

Desai, M., 2002, 'Transnational solidarity: women's agency, structural adjustment, and globalization' in Women's Activism and Globalization: Linking Local Struggles and Transnational Politics, N. A. Naples and M. Desai (eds), Routledge, New York and London.

Dowse, S. and Giles, P. 1984, 'Australia: Women in a warrior society' in Sisterhood is Global: The International Women's Movement Anthology, Robin Morgan (ed), Feminist Press, New York.

Enloe, C. 2004, 'Wielding masculinity inside Abu Ghraib: Making feminist sense of an academic military scandal', Asian Journal of Women's Studies, vol. 10, no. 3, 89-102.

Epstein, B. 2001, 'What happened to the women's movement?', Monthly Review, May, 1-13.

Evans, S. M. 2003, Tidal Wave: How Women Changed America at Century's End, Free Press, New York.

Foley, R. 2003, 'Violence against women: the challenges for Malaysian women' in Violence Against Women in Asian Societies, L. Manderson and L. R. Bennett (eds), RoutledgeCurzon, London.

Freedman, E. B. 2002, No Turning Back, Ballantyne, New York.

Fukuyama, F. 1992, The End of History and the Last Man, Hamish Hamilton, London.

Ganguly-Scrase, R. 2000, 'Diversity and the status of women: the Indian case' in Louise Edwards and Mina Roces (eds), Women in Asia: Tradition, Modernity and Globalisation, Allen and Unwin, Sydney.

Gelb, J. 2003, Gender Policies in Japan and the United States: Comparing Women's Movements, Rights and Politics, Palgrave Macmillan, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9781403976789

Green, R. 1984, 'The United States: Honoring the vision of changing women"' in Sisterhood is Global: The International Women's Movement Anthology, Robin Morgan (ed.), Feminist Press, New York."

Hardacre, H. 2005, 'Constitutional revision and Japanese religions', Japanese Studies, vol. 25, no. 3, 235-247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10371390500342725

Harris, A. 2004, Future Girl: Young Women in the Twenty-first Century, Routledge, New York and London.

Ho, C. 2005, 'Women crossing borders, Chinese women, migration and gender identity in Australia', 8th Women in Asia Conference, Women's Caucus of the Asian Studies Association of Australia and University of Technology Sydney, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney 26-28 September.

Hooper, B. 1998, 'Flower vase and housewife": women and consumerism in post-Mao China', in Gender and Power in Affluent Asia, K. Sen and M. Stivens (eds), Routledge, London and New York."

Hughes, K. 2005, 'I've been pondering whether you can be a part-feminist": Young Australian women's studies students discuss gender', Women's Studies International Forum, vol. 28, no. 1, 37-49." http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2005.02.003

Inglehart, R. & Norris, P. 2003, Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change Around the World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511550362

Jayawardena, K. 1986, Feminism and Nationalism in the Third World, Zed Books, London.

John, M. E. 2005, 'Women's studies in India and the question of Asia: Some reflections', Asian Journal of Women's Studies, vol. 11, no. 2, 41-66.

Jones, G. W. 2002, 'The changing Indonesian household' in Women in Indonesia: Gender, Equity and Development, K. Robinson and S. Bessell (eds), Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore.

Kabir, A. J. 2005, 'Shadow lines of control: Nilima Sheik's Kashmir paintings', 8th Women in Asian Conference, Women's Caucus of the Asian Studies Association of Australia and University of Technology Sydney, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney 26-28 September.

Kapadia, K. 2002, 'Introduction, the politics of identity, social inequalities and economic growth' in The Violence of Development: The Politics of Identity, Gender and Social Inequalities in India, Karin Kapadia (ed), Zed, London.

Kelsky, K. 2001, Women on the Verge: Japanese Women, Western Dreams, Duke University Press, Durham NC and London. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/9780822383277

Kim H. M. and Kang S.-M. 2001, 'Achievements and challenges of an Asian women's studies project', Asian Journal of Women's Studies, vol. 7, no. 4, 106-121.

Lee, E. W.Y. 2003a, 'Introduction: Gender and change in Hong Kong' in Gender and Change in Hong Kong: Globalization, Postcolonialism, and Chinese Patriarchy, E.W.Y. Lee (ed.) University of Hawai'i Press, Honololu.

Lee, E. W.Y 2003b. 'Individualism and patriarchy: The identity of entrepreneurial women lawyers in Hong Kong', in Gender and Change in Hong Kong: Globalization, Postcolonialism, and Chinese Patriarchy, E.W.Y. Lee (ed.), University of Hawai'i Press, Honololu.

Lee, S. W. 2005, 'The adoption of feminism in Korean philosophy and consequential changes in the philosophical system', in Feminist Cultural Politics in Korea, J.-H. O. (ed.), Prunsasang Publishing Co, Seoul.

Mackie, V. 2001, 'The language of globalization, transnationality and feminism', International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol. 3, no. 2, 180-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616740110053029

Matsui, Y. 1999, Women in the New Asia, Zed, London, translated by N. Toyokawa and C. Francis.

Mohanty, C. T. 1991. 'Under western eyes' in Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism, C.T. Mohanty et al (eds), Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis.

Mohanty, C.T. 2003, Feminism without Borders: Decolonizing Theory, Practicing Solidarity, Duke University Press, Durham and London. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/9780822384649

Morgan, R. (ed.) 1984, Sisterhood is Global: The International Women's Movement Anthology, Feminist Press, New York.

Munshi, S. (ed) 2001, Images of the 'Modern Woman' in Asia, Curzon Press, Richmond, Surrey.

Ng, C. W. & Ng, E.G.H. 2002, 'The concept of state feminism and the case for Hong Kong', Asian Journal of Women's Studies, vol. 8, no. 1, 7-37.

Nguyen T.D. 1984, 'Vietnam: The Braided Army"' in Sisterhood is Global: The International Women's Movement Anthology, ed. Robin Morgan, Feminist Press, New York, 728-730."

Ong, A. 1999, Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logics of Transnationality, Duke University Press, Durham and London.

Owen, N. G. 2002, 'Why I am (not) a Feminist": voices from Hong Kong students', Asian Journal of Women's Studies, vol. 8, no. 3, 86-102."

Park, S. C. 1984, 'Korea (South): A grandmother's vision', in Sisterhood is Global: The International Women's Movement Anthology, Robin Morgan (ed.), Feminist Press, New York, 404-405.

Pettus, A. 2003, Between Sacrifice and Desire: National Identity and the Governing of Femininity in Vietnam, Routledge, New York and London.

Pilcher, Jane 1998. Women of Their Time: Generation, Gender Issues and Feminism, Ashgate, Aldershot, England.

Pozner, J. 2003, 'The big lie": False feminist death syndrome, profit and the media', in Catching a Wave: Reclaiming Feminism for the 21st Century, R. Dicker & A. Piepmeier (eds), Northeastern University, Boston."

Ramamurthy, P. 2000, 'Indexing alternatives: feminist development studies and global political economy', Feminist Theory, vol. 1, no. 2, 239-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/14647000022229209

Ray, R and Korteweg, A.C. 1999, 'Women's movements in the third world: Identity, mobilization, and autonomy', Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 25, 47-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.25.1.47

Roces, M. and Edwards, L. 2000, 'Contesting gender narratives, 1970-2000', in Women in Asia: Tradition, Modernity and Globalisation, L. Edwards and M. Roces (eds), Allen and Unwin, Sydney

Rofel, L. 1999, Other Modernities: Gendered Yearnings in China after Socialism, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Rosen, R. 2000, The World Split Open: How the Modern Women's Movement Changed America, Penguin, New York.

Sang, T. D. 2003, The Emerging Lesbian: Female Same-sex Desire in Modern China Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press.

Segal, L. 1999, Why Feminism? Gender, Psychology, Politics, Columbia University Press, New York.

Sen, K. 1998, 'Indonesian women at work: reframing the subject' in Gender and Power in Affluent Asia, K. Sen and M. Stivens (eds.), Routledge, London and New York.

Sen, Krishna and Stivens, Maila (eds.) 1988, Gender and Power in Affluent Asia, Routledge, London and New York.

Skeggs, B. 1995, 'Women's Studies in Britain in the 1990s: Entitlement Cultures and Institutional Constraints', Women's Studies International Forum, vol. 18, no. 4, 475-485

Stivens, Maila 1998, 'Sex, gender and the making of the new Malay middle classes' in Gender and Power in Affluent Asia, K. Sen and M. Stivens (eds.), Routledge, London and New York.

Sumbung, T. 1984, 'Indonesia: Multiple roles and double burdens' in Sisterhood is Global: The International Women's Movement Anthology, Robin Morgan (ed.), Feminist Press, New York.

Summers, A. 2003, The End of Equality: Work, Babies and Women's Choices in 21st Century Australia, Random House, Sydney.

Suryochondro, S. 2000, 'The development of women's movements in Indonesia' in Indonesian Women, The Journey Continues, M. Oey-Gardiner and C. Bianpoen (eds.), Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.

Tantiwiramanond, D. and Ranjan, P.S. 1996, 'New opportunities or new inequalities: development issues and women's lives in Thailand', Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Thai Studies 1996, volume 5, Chiang Mai.

Threlfall, M. 1996, 'Conclusion', in Mapping the Women's Movement: Feminist Politics and Social Transformation in the North, M. Threlfall (ed.), Verso, London and New York.

Tiffen, R. and Gittins, R. 2004, How Australia Compares, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511481598

Ueno C. 2004, Nationalism and Gender, B. Yamamoto (Trans), Pacific Press, Melbourne.

Vajrathon, M. 1984, 'Thailand: we superwomen must allow the men to grow up', in Sisterhood is Global: The International Women's Movement Anthology, Robin Morgan (ed.), Feminist Press, New York.

Vervoorn, A. 2002, Reorient: Change in Asian Societies, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne.

Vickers, J. 2002, 'Feminists and nationalism' in Gender, Race, and Nation: A Global Perspective, V. Dhruvarajan and J. Vickers (eds.), University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Vickers, J. 2006, 'Some methodological and conceptual issues in connecting feminisms with nationhood and nationalisms' International Feminist Journal of Politics vol. 8, no. 1, 84-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616740500415490

Wieringa, S.E. 1999, 'Women's Empowerment in Japan: Towards an Alternative Index on Gender Equality', Journal of Gender Studies, no.2, 25-47.

Williams, L. 1998, Wives, Mistresses and Matriarchs: Asian Women Today, Allen and Unwin, Sydney.

Wolf, N. 1993, Fire with Fire: The New Female Power and How it Will Change the 21st Century, Random House, New York.

Zhang, L. 2005, 'Development of women and gender studies in China', Gender and Sexuality: Journal of the Center for Gender Studies ICU, no 0, 39-59.