Out of the Blue: The Pacific Rim as a Region

Arturo Santa-Cruz


Abstract

In 1993, in advance of what was to be the first Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) leader’s summit, US president Bill Clinton gave a lecture at Waseda University in Japan. In his speech, Clinton called for the creation of a “community of the Pacific.” The idea of a Pacific community is neither Clinton’s nor the Democratic Party’s invention, however. In the previous decade Ronald Reagan had already used it, going even beyond later conceptualizations, by referring to the 21st century as the Pacific’s century. But Reagan's prophecy concerning the Great Ocean was not new back in the 1980s either. In 1900 then US Secretary of State John Hay wrote: “the Mediterranean is the ocean of the past, the Atlantic the ocean of the present and the Pacific is the ocean of the future.” In a more general manner, as Christopher Coker has observed, the notion of the “Century of the Pacific” is plausible because it is consistent with the idea, popularized by Hegel, that the spirit of civilization is moving toward that part of the globe. Thus, the century of the Pacific has become a kind of zeitgeist. In this paper I undertake a conceptual, historical, and theoretical journey through the “Pacific Rim” or “Asia-Pacific,” as it has been called more recently. Although I will question the utility of the term, I want to make clear that my purpose is only to undertake a critical survey of “the Pacific.” As in any trip, however, one needs a starting point. But, What is the starting point of the Pacific Rim, that geographic zone that has been compared to Pascal’s sphere: “with periphery indeterminable and a center that may be anywhere”?

Keywords

Pacific; Pacific Rim; Hegemony;

Full Text

PDF

References

Aggarwal, Vinod K. 1993. Building International Institutions in Asia-Pacific. Asian Survey 33 (11): 1029-1042.

Akamatsu, Kaname (1961): A Theory of Unbalanced Growth in the World Economy. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, Hamburg, 86: 196-217.

Baker, James A. 1991/2. America in Asia: Emerging Architecture for a Pacific Community. Foreign Affairs 70 (5):1-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20045000

Berger, Mark. 1999. APEC and Its Enemies: The Failure of the New Regionalism in the Asia-Pacific. Third World Quarterly 20 (5):1013-1030. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01436599913460

Breslin, Shaun, Richard Higgott, and Ben Rosamond. 2002. Regions in Comparative Perspective. In New Regionalisms in the Global Political Economy: Theories and Cases, edited by S. Breslin, C. Hughes, N. Phillips and B. Rosamond. London: Routledge.

Buzan, Barry. 1998. The Asia-Pacific: What Sort of Region in What Sort of World. In Asia-Pacific in the New World Order, edited by A. Mc Grew and C. Brook. London: Routledge.

Castells, Manuel. 1999. La era de la informacin: Fin de milenio. 3 vols. Vol. 3. Mexico City: Siglo XXI.

Cohen, Stephen. 2002. Mapping Asian Integration: Transnational Transactions in the Pacific Rim. American Asian Review 20 (3):1-29.

Coker, Christopher. 2003. Surfing the Zeitgist. In Meaning and International Relations, edited by P. Mandaville and A. Williams. London: Routledge.

Cumings, Bruce. 1998. Rimspeak; or, The Discourse of the Pacific Rim". In What is in a Rim? Critical Perspectives on the Pacific Region Idea, edited by A. Dirlik. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield."

Dirlik, Arif. 1992. The Asia-Pacific Idea: Reality and Representation in the Invention of a Regional Structure. Journal of World History 3 (1):55-79.

Dirlik, Arif. 1998a. Introduction: Pacific Contradictions. In What is in a Rim: Critical Perspectives on the Pacific Region Idea, edited by A. Dirlik. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.

Dirlik, Arif. 1998b. There is More in the Rim that Meets the Eye: Thoughts on the Pacific Idea". In What is in a Rim? Critical Perspectives on the Pacific Region Idea, edited by A. Dirlik. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield."

Dosch, Jrn. 2000. Asia-Pacific Multilateralism and the Role of the United States. In International Relations in the Asia-Pacific: New Patterns of Power, Interest, and Cooperation, edited by J. Dosch and M. Mols. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Faust, Jrg, and Uwe Franke. 2002. Attempts at Diversification: Mexico and Pacific Asia. Pacific Review 15 (2): 299-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09512740210131077

Forbes, Dean. 1997. Regional Integration, Internationalisation and the New Geographies of the Pacific Rim. In Asia-Pacific: New Geographies of the Pacific Rim, edited by R. F. Watters and T. G. McGee. London: Hurst.

Fry, Greg. 2000. A 'Coming Age of Regionalism'? In Contending Images of World Politics, edited by G. Fry and J. O'Hagan. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Gilpin, Robert. 1995. APEC in a New International Order. Seattle: APEC Study Center at the University of Washington/The National Bureau of Asian Research.

Grieco, Joseph M. 1996. Institucionalizacin econmica regional: la experiencia de Amrica en una perspectiva comparativa. In Regionalismo y poder en Amrica: los lmites del neorrealismo, edited by A. Borja, G. Gonzlez and B. J. R. Stevenson. Mexico City: Porra-CIDE.

Guttman, William and Scott Laughlin. 1990. Latin America in the Pacific Era, " The Washington Quarterly 13:2 (electronic edition)." http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01636609009477643

Higgott, Richard. 1993. Competing Theoretical Approaches to International Cooperation: Implications for the Asia-Pacific. In Pacific Economic Relations in the 1990s: Cooperation or Conflict, edited by Richard Higgott, Richard Leaver, and John Ravenhill. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Higgott, Richard, Richard Leaver, and John Ravenhill. 1993. Introduction: Political Economy and the Pacific. In Pacific Economic Relations in the 1990s: Cooperation or Conflict, edited by Richard Higgott, Richard Leaver, and John Ravenhill. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Houseman, Gerald. 1995. America and the Pacific Rim: Coming to Terms with New Realities. Lanham: Rowmand and Littlefield.

Katzenstein, Peter J. 1997. Introduction: Asian Regionalism in Comparative Perspective. In Network Power: Japan and Asia, edited by P. J. Katzenstein and T. Shiraishi. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Kelly, Philip F., and Kris Olds. 1999. Questions in a Crisis: The Contested Meanings of Globalisation in Asia-Pacific. In Globalisation in the Asia-Pacific: Contested Territories, edited by K. Olds, P. Dicken, P. F. Kelly, L. Kong and H. W.-c. Yeung. London: Routledge.

Kohona, Palitha. 1986. The Evolving Conept of a Pacific Basin Community. Asian Survey 26 (4):399-419.

Lewis, Martin W., and Kren E. Wigen. 1997. The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Linnan, David K. 1995. APEC Quo Vadis? American Journal of International Law 89 (4):824-834. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2203943

Lowenthal, Abraham. 1998. Preface. In International Policy Institutions Around the Pacific Rim. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

McGee, T. G., and R. F. Watters. 1997. Introduction. In Asia-Pacific: New Geographies of the Pacific Rim, edited by R. F. Watters and T. G. McGee. London: Hurst.

Mols, Manfred. 2000. Asia-Pacific: Why Theory and what Type of It. In International Relations in the Asia-Pacific: New Patterns of Power, Interest, and Cooperation, edited by J. Dosch and M. Mols. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Otto, Carsten. 2000. International Regimes" in the Asia-Pacific? In International Relations in the Asia-Pacific: New Patterns of Power, Interest, and Cooperation, edited by J. Dosch and M. Mols. New York: St. Martin's Press."

Palat, Ravi Arvind. 1996. Pacific Century: Myth or Reality? Theory and Society 25:303-347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00158261

Pyle, Kenneth B. 1997. The Context of APEC: U.S.-Japan Relations. In From APEC to Xanadu: Creating a Viable Community in the Post-Cold War Pacific, edited by D. C. Hellman and K. B. Pyle. Armonk, N.Y.: National Bureau of Asian Research-M. E. Sharpe.

Ravenhill, John. 2001. APEC and the Construction of Pacific Rim Regionalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rland, Jrgen, Eva Manske, and Werner Draguhn. 2002. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC): The First Decade. London: RoutledgeCurzon.

Saavedra, Neantro. 2004. Las nuevas afinidades regionales en el Pacfico. Ensayo de construccin de un marco conceptual. Estudios Internacionales 144: 67-80.

Segal, Gerald. 1990. Rethinking the Pacific. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Singh, Hari. 2000. Hegemons and the Construction of Regions. In The State and Identity Construction in International Relations, edited by S. O. Vandersluis. New York: Macmillan.

Timberman, David G. 1981. In Search of a Pacific Basin Community. Asian Survey 21 (5): 579-598.

Uscanga, Carlos, Mexican Economic Diplomacy in the Pacific Rim: Actions and Strategies for Becoming a Member in Economic Cooperation Frameworks." Paper prepared for the UdeG-UTS workshop "Regional Integration in the Pacific Rim: The Economic Impact, " Sydney, Australia, 23-25 July 2001."

U.S. House of Representatives, 1979a (18 July), Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs Report.

U.S. House of Representatives, 1979b (31 October), Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs Report.

Whitaker, Arthur P. 1954. The Western Hemisphere Idea: Its Rise and Decline. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM