Is project management the new management 2.0?

Steve A Leybourne
Roger Warburton
Vijay Kanabar


This paper considers the evolving nature of project management (PM) and offers a comparison with the evolving nature of management generally. Specifically, we identify a number of management trends that are drawn from a paper that documents a proposed ‘Management 2.0’ model, and we compare those trends to the way in which PM is maturing to embrace the challenges of modern organizational progress.

Some theoretical frameworks are offered that assist in explaining the shift from the historically accepted ‘tools and techniques’ model to a more nuanced and behaviorally driven paradigm that is arguably more appropriate to manage change in today’s flexible and progressive organizations, and which provide a more coherent response, both in PM and traditional management, to McDonald’s forces. In addition, we offer a number of examples to robustly support our assertions, based around the development of innovative products from Apple Inc. In using this metaphor to demonstrate the evolution of project-based work, we link PM with innovation and new product development.


Full Text:



Adams, J.S. 1965. “Injustice in Social Exchange” in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (vol. 2), (ed.) L. Berkowitz, Academic Press, New York

Ashkanasy N. & Daus C.S. 2005. ‘Rumors of the Death of Emotional Intelligence in Organizational Behavior are Vastly Exaggerated’, Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 26, no. 4, 441-452.

Barrett, F. J. 1998, ‘Coda: Creativity and Improvisation in Jazz and Organizations: Implications for Organizational Learning’, Organization Science, vol. 9, no. 5 605-622.

Beedle, M., Bennekum, A. V., & Cockburn, A. 2001, Manifesto for agile software development. Available:

Boehm B. 1986, ‘A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement’, ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, vol. 11, no. 4, 14-24.

Burns, T. & Stalker, G.M. 1961, The Management of Innovation, Tavistock, London.

Christensen C.M. 1997, The Innovators Dilemma : The Revolutionary Book That Will Change The Way You Do Business, Harvard Business School Press, Cambridge, MA.

Ciborra, C. U. 1999, ‘Notes on Improvisation and Time in Organizations’, Accounting, Management and Information Technology, vol. 9, no. 1, 77-94.

Cooke-Davies T. 2011, ‘Complexity in Project Management and the Management of Complex Projects’ in Aspects of Complexity: Managing Projects in a Complex World, (ed.) T. Cooke-Davies, Project Management Institute, Newtown Square, PA, 1-13.

Crawford, L., Pollack, J. & England, D. 2006, ‘Uncovering the Trends in Project Management: Journal Emphases Over the Last Ten Years;, International Journal of Project Management, vol.24, 175-184.

Crossan, M., Cunha, M. P. E., Vera, D. and Cunha, J. 2005, ‘Time and Organizational Improvisation’, Academy of Management Review, vol. 30, no. 1, 129-145.

Crossan, M., and Sorrenti, M. 1997, ‘Making Sense of Improvisation’, Advances of Stra tegic Management, vol. 14, 155-180.

Cunha, M. P., and Cunha, J. V. 2001, ‘Managing Improvisation in Cross Cultural Virtual Teams’, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, vol. 1, no. 2, 187-208.

Cunha, M. P., and Cunha, J. V. 2003, ‘Organizational Improvisation and Change : Two Syntheses and a Filled Gap’, Journal of Organizational Change, vol. 16, no. 2, 169-185.

Cunha, J., and Cunha, M. P. 2008, ‘Improvisation in Organizations’ in The Sage Handbook of New Approaches in Management and Organization, (eds) D. Barry and H. Hansen, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 385-395.

Cunha, M. P., Cunha, J. V. and Kamoche, K. 1999, ‘Organizational Improvisation: What, When, How and Why’, International Journal of Management Reviews, vol. 1, no. 3, 299-341.

Cunha, J. V., Kamoche, K. N., and Cunha, M. P. 2002, ‘Once Again: What, How and Why – A Prospectus for Research in Organizational Improvisation’ in Organizational Improvisation, (eds) K. N. Kamoche, M. P. Cunha and J. V. Cunha, Routledge, London, 296-308.

Deming, W.E. (1993) The New Economics for Industry, Government, Education, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press

Drucker, P. 1969, The Age of Discontinuity; Guidelines to Our Changing Society, Harper and Row, New York.

Durand, D.E. & Nord, W.R, 1976, ‘Perceived Leader Behaviour as a Function of Personality Characteristics of Supervisors and Subordinates’, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 19, 427-438.

Etzioni A. 1975, A Comparitive Analysis of Complex Organizations, Free Press, New York.

Fiedler, F.E. 1967, A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness, McGraw Hill, New York

Goleman D. 1995, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ, Bantam Books, New York.

Gratton L., 2011, ‘Workplace 2025: What Will It Look Like?’, Organizational Dynamics, vol. 40, 246-254.

Handy, C.B. (1995) Gods of Management: The Changing Work of Organizations, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Hatch, M. J. 1997a, Jazzing Up the Theory of Organizational Improvisation’, Advances of Strategic Management, vol. 14, 181-191.

Hatch, M.J. 1997b, Organization Theory: Modern Symbolic and Postmodern Perspectives, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hatch, M. J. 1998, ‘Jazz as a Metephor for Organizing in the 21st Century’, Organization Science, vol. 9, no. 5, 556-557.

Hatch, M. J. 1999, ‘Exploring the Empty Spaces of Organizing: How Improvisational Jazz Helps Redescribe Organizational Structure’, Organization Studies, vol. 20, no. 1, 75-100.

Heider, F. 1958, The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Jobs at Apple 2011. Online Available: (Accessed 3rd Dec 2011)

Kamoche, K., and Cunha, M. P. 2001, ‘Minimal Structures : From Jazz Improvisation to Product Innovation’, Organization Studies, vol. 22, no. 5, 733-764.

Kamoche, K., Cunha, M. P. and Cunha, J. V. 2003, ‘Towards a Theory of Organizational Improvisation: Looking Beyond the Jazz Metaphor’, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 40, no. 8, 2023-2051.

Kanter, R.M. (1983) The Change Masters: Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the American Corporation, New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, Inc.

Kelley, H.H. 1973, ‘The Process of Causal Attribution’, American Psychologist, February, 107-128.

Kuhn T.S. 1962, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Lancaster L.C. & Stillman D. 2010, The M-Factor: How the Millenial Generation is rocking the Workplace, Harper Business, New York.

Leybourne, S. A. 2009, ‘Improvisation and Agile Project Management : A Comparative Consideration’, International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 2, no. 4, 519-535.

Leybourne, S., and Sadler-Smith, E. 2006, ‘The Role of Intuiti on and Improvisation in Project Management’, International Journal of Project Management, vol, 24, no, 6, 483-492.

Locke, E.A. 1968, ‘Towards a Theory of Task Motivation and Incentives’, Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, vol. 3, 157-189.

Locke E. 2005, ‘Why Emotional Intelligence is an Invalid Concept’, Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 26, no. 4, 425-431.

Malzman, R., & Shirley, D. 2011, Green project management, 1st ed., CRC Press, New York, p. 271.

March, J.G. & Simon, H.A. 1958, Organizations, John Wiley, New York.

Mayo, E.G. (1933) The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization, Reprinted by Routledge, 2003

McDonald, P. 2011, ‘It’s time for management version 2.0: Six forces redefining the future of modern management’, Futures, vol.43, 797–808.

Miner, A. S., Bassoff, P. and Moorman, C. 2001, ‘Organizational Improvisation and Learning: A Field Study’, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 46, no. 2, 304-337.

Moorman, C., and Miner, A. S. 1998a, ‘The Convergence of Planning and Execution : Improvisation in New Product Development’, Journal of Marketing, vol. 62, no. 3, 1-20.

Moorman, C. and Miner, A. S. 1998b, ‘Organizational Improvisation and Organizational Memory’, Academy of Management Review, vol. 23, no. 4, 698-723.

Mullins, L.J. 1999, Management and Organisational Behaviour, Pearson Education Ltd, Harlow, Essex.

Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H. 1995, The Knowledge-creating Company, Oxford University Press, New York.

Ong, J. 2011, Apple VP Shares Four Keys to Company, Online, Available: (Accessed 19 Nov 2011).

Orlikowski, W. A. 1996, ‘Improvising Organizational Transformation over Time: A Situated Change Perspective’, Information Systems Research, vol. 7, no. 1, 63-92.

Panas, A. (2006) The changing role of project management teams in distributed environments. Unpublished MSc Dissertation. Loughborough University

Pfeffer, J. & Salancik, G.R. 1978, The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective, Harper & Row, New York.

PM network 2009, ‘The Buzz’, Project Management Institute, September.

Polanyi M. 1958, Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Polanyi, M. 1966, The Tacit Dimension, Doubleday & Co, Inc., New York.

Pollack, J. 2007, ‘The Changing Paradigms of Project Management’, International Journal of Project Management, vol. 25, 266-274.

Porter, L.W. & Lawler, E.E. 1968, Managerial Attitudes and Performance, Irwin, Homewood, IL.

Project Management Institute 2005, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, PMI, Newtown Square, PA.

Rynes, S.L., Bartunek, J.M., & Draft, D.L. 2001, ‘Across the Great Divide: Knowledge Creation and Transfer between Practitioners and Academics’, Academy of Management Review, vol.44, no.2, 340-355.

Sadington, P. 2011, Apple, Google, or Microsoft? – Which does agile better?, Online Available:, (Accessed 3 Feb 2011).

Sarasvathy S.D. 2008, Effectuation: Elements of Entrepreneurial Expertise, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.

Saynisch, M. (2010) Beyond Frontiers of Traditional Project Management: An Approach to Evolutionary, Self-Organizational Principles and the Complexity Theory—Results of the Research Program Project Management Journal vol 41, No. 2, 21-37

Schmid B. & Adams J. (2008) Motivation in project management: The project manager's perspective, Project Management Journal, vol. 39, no.2: 60-71

Senge P. 1990, The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, Doubleday, New York.

Sense A. 2007, Cultivating Learning Within Projects, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Simon, H.A. 1956, ‘Rational Choice and the Structure of the Environment’, Psychological Review, vol.63, 129-138.

Simon, H.A. 1957, ‘A Behavioural Model of Rational Choice’ in Models of Man, (ed.) H.A. Simon, John Wiley, New York.

Schwartz, A. 2010, Is it green?: The apple ipad, Online Available:, (Accessed 27 Jan 2012).

Tapscott D. & Williams A.D. 2006, Wikinomics : How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything, Portfolio/Penguin books (USA), Inc., New York.

Taylor F.W. (1911) The Principles of Scientific Management New York, NY : Harper & Brothers

Vendelø, M. T. 2009, ‘Improvisation and Learning in Organizations - an Opportunity for Future Empirical Research’, Management Learning, vol. 40, no. 4, 449-456.

H.A. von der Gracht, C.R. Vennemann, I.L. Darkow 2010, ‘Corporate Foresight and Innovation Management: A Portfolio-Approach In Evaluating Organizational Development’, Futures, vol. 42, 380–393.

Weick, K. E. 1993, ‘Organizational Redesign as Improvisation’ in Organizational Change and Redesign, Ideas and Insights for Improving Performance, (eds) G. P. Huber and W. H. Glick, Oxford University Press, New York, 347-379.

Vroom, V.H. 1964, Work and Motivation, John Wiley, New York.

Vroom, V.H. & Yetton, P.W. 1973, Leadership and Decision-Making, Uni of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA.

Zack, M. 2000, ‘Jazz Improvisation and Organizing: Once More from the Top’ Organization Science, vol. 11, no.2, 227-234.



Share this article: