Single Channel Wireless EEG: Proposed Application in Train Drivers

Main Article Content

Surya Darma Ridwan
Robert Thompson
Budi Thomas Jap
Sara K Lal
Peter Fischer


Electroencephalography (EEG) can be used as an
indicator of fatigue. Several studies have shown that
slow wave brain activities, delta (0-4 Hz) and theta (4-
8 Hz), increase as an individual becomes fatigued,
while the fast brain activities, alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta
(13-35 Hz), decrease. However, an EEG is a complex
piece of equipment that is generally used in laboratory
based studies. In order to develop a fatigue
countermeasure device for train drivers using EEG,
there is a need for a simple and wireless EEG monitor.
This paper explains the development of a single
channel wireless EEG device.

Article Details

BioInformatics and e-Technologies
Author Biography

Robert Thompson, University of Technology, Sydney

Peter Fischer+


L. F. Haas, "Hans Berger (1873-1941), Richard Caton (1842-1926), and electroencephalography. (Neurological Stamp)," Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 74, p. 9, 2003.

W. De Clercq, B. Vanrumste, J.-M. Papy, W. Van Paesschen, and S. Van Huffel, "Modeling Common Dynamics in Multichannel Signals With Applications to Artifact and Background Removal in EEG Recordings," IEEE Transactions on Bioimedical Engineering, vol. 52, pp. 2006- 2015, 2005.

J. J. Carr and J. M. Brown, Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology, 4th ed. New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall, 2001.

R. Lin, R.-G. Lee, C.-L. Tseng, Y.-F. Wu, and J.- A. Jiang, "Design and Implementation of Wireless Multi-channel EEG Recording System and Study of EEG Clustering Method," Biomedical Engineering - Applications, Basis & Communications, vol. 18, pp. 276-283, 2006.

H. J. Eoh, M. K. Chung, and S.-H. Kim, "Electroencephalographic study of drowsiness in simulated driving with sleep deprivation," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 35, pp. 307-320, 2005.

S. K. L. Lal and A. Craig, "Reproducibility of the spectral components of the electroencephalogram during driver fatigue," International Journal of Psychophysiology, vol. 55, pp. 137-143, 2005.

S. K. L. Lal and A. Craig, "Driver Fatigue: Electroencephalography and Psychological Assessment," Psychophysiology, vol. 39, pp. 313- 321, 2002.

T. Åkerstedt, G. Kecklund, and A. Knutsson, "Manifest Sleepiness and the Spectral Content of the EEG during Shift Work," Sleep, vol. 14, pp. 221-225, 1991.

G. Kecklund and T. Åkerstedt, "Sleepiness in long distance truck driving: an ambulatory EEG study of night driving," Ergonomics, vol. 36, pp. 1007- 1017, 1993.

O. G. Okogbaa, R. L. Shell, and D. Filipusic, "On the investigation of the neurophysiological correlates of knowledge worker mental fatigue using the EEG signal," Applied Ergonomics, vol. 25, pp. 355-365, 1994.

P. Artaud, S. Planque, C. Lavergne, H. Cara, P. de Lepine, C. Tarriere, and B. Gueguen, "An on-board system for detecting lapses of alertness in car driving," in 14th E.S.V. Conference, Session 2 - Intelligent Vehicle Highway System and Human Factors, Munich, Germany, 1994.

A. J. Tomarken, R. J. Davidson, R. E. Wheeler, and L. Kinney, "Psychometric properties of resting anterior EEG asymmetry: temporal stability and internal consistency," Psychophysiology, vol. 29, pp. 576– 592, 1992.

V. E. Pollock, L. S. Schneider, and S. A. Lyness, "Reliability of topographic quantitative EEG amplitude in healthy late-middle-aged and elderly subjects," Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 79, pp. 20-26, 2002.

T. Gasser, P. Bacher, and H. Steinberg, "Test-retest reliability of spectral parameters of the EEG," Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 60, pp. 312-319, 1985.

T. Gasser, L. Sroka, and J. Möcks, "The transfer of EOG activity into the EEG for eyes open and closed," Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. in press, 1985.

S. K. L. Lal, A. Craig, P. Boord, L. Kirkup, and H. Nguyen, "Development of an algorithm for an EEG-based driver fatigue countermeasure," Journal of Safety Research, vol. 34, pp. 321-328, 2003.

B. T. Jap, S. Lal, P. Fischer, and E. Bekiaris, "Using Spectral Analysis to Extract Frequency Components from Electroencephalography: Application for Fatigue Countermeasure in Train Drivers," in The 2nd International Conference on Wireless Broadband and Ultra Wideband Communications (AusWireless 2007) Sydney, Australia, 2007.

J. M. Stern and J. Engel, Altas of EEG Patterns. USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005.

H. H. Jasper, "Report of the committee on methods of clinical examination in electroencephalography : 1957," Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 10, pp. 370-375, 1958.

A. J. Rowan and E. Tolunsky, Primer of EEG: With a Mini-Atlas. USA: Elsevier Science, 2003.

M. F. Bear, B. W. Connors, and M. A. Paradiso, "Rhythms of the Brain," in Neuroscience: exploring the brain, 2nd ed, M. F. Bear, B. W. Connors, and M. A. Paradiso, Eds. USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, pp. 606-636.

J. Malmivuo and R. Plonsey, Bioelectromagnetism: Principles and Applications of Bioelectric and Biomagnetic Fields: Oxford University Press, USA, 1995.

M. R. Neuman, "Biopotential Electrodes," in Medical Instrumentation: Applicantion and Design, 3rd ed, J. G. Webster, Ed. USA: John Wiley and Sons, 1998.

B. B. Winter and J. G. Webster, "Reduction of Interference Due to Common Mode Voltage in Biopotential Amplifiers," IEEE Transactions on Bioimedical Engineering, vol. 30, pp. 58-62, 1983.

Analog Devices, "Low Cost, Low Power Instrumentation Amplifier - AD620," Analog Devices, 1999.

D. J. Comer and D. T. Comer, Advanced Electronic Circuit Design. Great Britain: Wiley, 2003.

B. B. Winter and J. G. Webster, "Driven-Right-Leg Circuit Design," IEEE Transactions on Bioimedical Engineering, vol. 30, pp. 62-66, 1983.

Texas Instruments, "SimpliciTI Network Protocol," 2008.

D. F. Dinges, "An overview of sleepiness and accidents," Journal of Sleep Research, vol. 4, pp. 4-14, 1995.

National Transport Commission (NTC), "Fatigue Management Within The Rail Industry: Review of Regulatory Approach," Melbourne, Australia 2004.

M. Ashiya, S. Sone, Y. Sato, and A. Kaga, "Application of pure electric braking system to electric railcars," in Proceedings of 6th International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control, 2000, pp. 163-168.

A. Austin and P. D. Drummond, "Work problems associated with suburban train driving," Applied Ergonomics, vol. 17, pp. 111-116, 1986.

A. Jabez, "Back in control," Nursing Times, vol. 89, pp. 46-47, 1993.

G. J. S. Wilde and J. F. Stinson, "The monitoring of vigilance in locomotive engineers," Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. 15, pp. 87-93, 1983.

G. D. Edkins and C. M. Pollock, "The influence of sustained attention on Railway accidents," Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. 29, pp. 533-539, 1997.

G. D. Roach, J. Dorrian, A. Fletcher, and D. Dawson, "Comparing the effects of fatigue and alcohol consumption on locomotive engineers' performance in a rail simulator," Journal of Human Ergology, vol. 30, pp. 125-130, 2001.

RailCorp, "Careers in Service Delivery," 2008.

T. Åkerstedt and P. M. Nilsson, "Sleep as restitution: an introduction," Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 254, pp. 6-12, 2003.

B. T. Jap, S. Lal, P. Fischer, and E. Bekiaris, "Using EEG spectral components to assess algorithms for detecting fatigue," Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 36, pp. 2352-2359, 2009.

H. Tietze, "Stages of wakefulness during long duration driving reflected in alpha related events in the EEG," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Traffic and Transport Psychology ICTTP, Bern, Zwitserland, 2000.

T.-P. Jung, S. Makeig, M. Stensmo, and T. J. Sejnowski, "Estimating alertness from the EEG power spectrum," IEEE Transactions on Bioimedical Engineering, vol. 44, pp. 60-69, 1997.

A. Subasi, "Automatic recognition of alertness level from EEG by using neural network and wavelet coefficients," Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 28, pp. 701-711, 2005.

M. K. Kiymik, M. Akin, and A. Subasi, "Automatic recognition of alertness level by using wavelet transform and artificial neural network," Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 139, pp. 231-240, 2004.

C.-T. Lin, R.-C. Wu, S.-F. Liang, W.-H. Chao, Y.- J. Chen, and T.-P. Jung, "EEG-based drowsiness estimation for safety driving using independent component analysis," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, vol. 52, pp. 2726- 2738, 2005.

A. Williamson and T. Chamberlain, "Review of onroad driver fatigue monitoring devices," New South Wales, Australia: NSW Injury Risk Management Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2005.

J. Yao, R. Schmitz, and S. Warren, "A Wearable Standards-Based Point-of-Care System for Home Use," in international Conference ofthe IEEE EMBS, Cancun, Mexico, 2003.

C.-H. Shih, K. Wang, and H.-C. Shih, "An adaptive bluetooth packet selection and scheduling scheme in interference environments," Computer Communications, vol. 29, pp. 2084-2095, 2006.

H. A. Thompson, "Wireless and Internet communications technologies for monitoring and control," Control Engineering Practice, vol. 12, pp. 781-791, 2004.

I. Chlamtac, M. Conti, and J. J. N. Liu, "Mobile ad hoc networking: imperatives and challenges," Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 1, pp. 13-64, 2003.

N. Wang, N. Zhang, and M. Wang, "Wireless sensors in agriculture and food industry--Recent development and future perspective," Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 50, pp. 1-14, 2006.