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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • Is your paper in Microsoft Word (.DOC)?
  • Is it formatted according to the author guidelines provided in the PORTAL 'About' section? (font, margins, spacing etc.)
  • Have you used the modified Harvard referencing style, according to the author guidelines? Please note, if you have not, the submission will be rejected.
  • Have you cross-checked the bibliography against the text?
  • Have you checked whether your graphics, tables, audio and video files are in the format and size specified in the guidelines?
  • Are the locations of the linked files clearly indicated within the document?
  • Are they appropriately and meaningfully labelled?
  • Have you provided tag text for the graphics used as links to audio or videos?
  • Have you prepared an abstract of up to 300 words in English to enter at the next step in this submission?
  • Have you prepared up to 6 key words in English to enter at the next step in this submission?
  • Have you prepared a brief biographical statement to enter at the next step in this submission? NOTE: The Editorial Committee will return submissions to authors who fail to provide any of the above information or follow the above guidelines. The review process will not be initiated until such documents are modified in line with the journal's guidelines and resubmitted.
  • Have you received funding in the course of the research leading to this submission and acknowledged it?
  • Have you added all available DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) to your references? If not, please go to the free service: http://www.crossref.org/SimpleTextQuery to retrieve all available DOIs to add to your references.

This journal does not charge any type of article processing charge (APC) or any type of article submission charge. 

PORTAL invites authors to submit manuscripts that fall within the ‘Focus and Scope’ of the journal. Acceptance of an article for publication in PORTAL is made on condition that authors accept the parameters described in About the Journal. Submitted articles must not be under consideration elsewhere and must be previously unpublished. Please be aware that we will not consider materials that are sent simultaneously to other journals for their publication consideration, or that are being prepared for publication in a book. Translations of already published material may be considered for peer review, but only with prior author negotiation with the journal Editor. If you feel that PORTAL is the appropriate place for your manuscript, please refrain from submitting the article elsewhere until you have a response from us. Once your submission is accepted for publication, please do not publish it elsewhere, as this is a breach of academic protocols. Decisions to publish in PORTAL are made by the PORTAL editorial committee after considering blind reviews, and, if appropriate, in consultation with guest editors. In the event that a submission is deemed unsuitable for publishing in PORTAL, once authors are informed, no further correspondence will be entered into.


Copyright for articles published in PORTAL is retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, articles are free to use, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings. The names and email addresses entered in PORTAL site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.
Authors should post their submissions online, after registering with and logging in to the journal. No hard copy submissions will be accepted. Receipt will be automatically acknowledged and registered. After an assessment of the paper’s suitability for publication in PORTAL, the editor will send it electronically to a minimum of two referees, who will decide whether to recommend rejection or publication with or without changes. The process is tracked electronically, including any dialogue with the author. The identities of authors and reviewers are not revealed to each other. It is thus essential that submissions contain no information that can lead reviewers to identify their author. Accepted papers, when in final form, are assigned to an issue of PORTAL, copy edited and formatted for publication. On the date of publication, the issue will be announced and subscribers notified. Subscribers can read the papers as published or retrieve them later through searches.
Papers will normally be between 4,000 and 8,000 words in length including footnotes and, for scholarly essays, should use the modified Harvard referencing style, as outlined below. Submissions that do not conform to the journal's author and style guidelines will be returned to authors for modification; no review will be undertaken if authors have not followed these guidelines. Papers can be written in any of the following languages: Chinese, English, French, German, Italian, Japanese, or Spanish. Papers should provide footnotes with translations into the language of the paper of any direct quotations in languages other than the main language of the paper. All papers should be accompanied by an abstract of up to 300 words in English. In addition, a list of up to six key words in English should be provided.
Please use the typeface Times New Roman throughout your article. The main text of submissions should be typed in 1.5 spacing in a font size of 12pt. The text should be justified on the left margin only (not justified on the right). The Reference List should be single-spaced 10pt, with distinctions between references marked by single carriage returns and hanging indents. References are to be in the modified Harvard style, but where notes are necessary please use footnotes. Footnote text is to be single-spaced 10pt. Authors should avoid word divisions and hyphens at the end of lines. Use a single (not a double) space after a full point, and after commas, colons, semi-colons, etc. Do not put a space in front of a question mark, or in front of any other closing quotation mark. The beginning of a new paragraph should be indicated by a space made by a double carriage return (not an indent). Insert page numbers on the bottom right hand corner of each page. Limit headings to three levels. The first level (for the title of the paper) should be 16pt bold. The second level (for subheadings) should be 12 pt bold, and if a third level is necessary use 12pt italicized text. Capitalize the first letters of words in titles and headings. Subheadings should be separated from the preceding paragraph by a space, but do not put a space before the paragraph immediately following the subheading.
For articles written in English, British or American English spelling is acceptable provided usage is consistent. Foreign words and phrases not in common (English) usage should be italicised. Manuscripts are blind reviewed, so the author(s) name and/or affiliation should not appear – directly, or indirectly in a reference – on the pages of the main document, or in the document's properties data. An abstract (in English), a brief biographical note about the author(s), contact details, institutional affiliation, and keywords (English) should be submitted in the appropriate fields when submitting the paper. Please do NOT submit compressed files. Do not use any word processing options/tools, such as: strike through, hidden text, comments, merges, and so forth.
All tables must be embedded in the manuscript near the first reference to the corresponding table. Tables MUST be no wider than 13.5 cm.
Multimedia files
Any graphics that go in the paper must be submitted as separate files. The highest quality master (e.g. TIF) is preferred. Additionally, the graphics must also be embedded in the correct locations within the document. Please note that any graphics created in Microsoft Word must also be submitted as separate files. Filenames for figures must be clearly labelled as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc., at the bottom of the figure, left justified, numbered in sequence, and must be referenced within the text of the article. ALT tags will be applied to all graphics. The default tag will be the figure caption supplied by the author. Authors should provide tag text for any graphics used as links to audio or videos.
All videos must be submitted in a web-optimized format as to allow for progressive download. The preferred format is Windows Media. Videos should be identified in the text as “Video 1, Video 2,” etc., and video filenames should include the corresponding video numbers. Authors must clearly indicate the location of the link to the video within the article. This link could be a text link (e.g., “Video 1”) or a still frame from the video (i.e., a .GIF, .PNG or .JPG file).
Audio files must also be submitted in a web-optimized format in either Windows Media, Real, or Quicktime formats. Audio files should be identified in the text as “Audio 1, Audio 2,” etc., and audio filenames should include the corresponding audio numbers. Authors must clearly indicate the location of the link to the audio within the article. This link could be a text link (e.g., “Audio 1”) or a related graphic.
2.5 MB is the recommended maximum multimedia file size. If it is essential to have files that are larger than this, two different versions of files must be made. One version, less than 2.5 MB in size, will serve as a low-resolution or truncated version. The other version can be up to 15 MB in size. If a multimedia file has both a smaller and larger version associated with it, the smaller version will be the standard option and the larger version will be available from a link in the e-journal. Portal takes no responsibility for the functioning of non-Portal content of external websites.
Referencing style (modified Harvard)
For a short direct quote, single quotation marks are used to distinguish the original text and the author(s), year and page number are given in parentheses. Double quotation marks should only be used for quotes within quotes
Example: One of the activists referred to feminism as a ‘vampire’ that, if reborn, had to be ‘pierced through the heart with a big and strong rosewood stake’ (Sklevicky 1996: 87).
This demonstrates that, ‘when flows of libido resist therapeutic practice, rather than being a resistance of the ego, this is the intense outcry of all of desiring-production’ (Deleuze & Guattari 1977: 66-67).
If a source is repeated within a single paragraph, refer to it with page number/s. DO NOT use Ibid. or Op.cit.
Example: ‘The ego, however, is like daddy-mommy; the schizo has long since ceased to believe in it’ (23).
Direct quotes of 4 lines or longer are included as free-standing paragraphs, without quotation marks, single spaced 10 pt and indented 1 cm from the left margin.
Example: Note: entire quote will be indented 1 cm from the left margin, Even scholars with the slightest modicum of interest in Latin America know of the long and problematic relationship the U.S. has had, and continues to have, with the region. Economic, political, or tourist designs on particular locations since the end of the Spanish-American War established colonial conditions through such epithets as 'banana republic,' 'the good neighbor,' 'south of the border,' 'commonwealth,' 'backyard,' or 'Free Trade Zone.' One glance at the U.S. role in the Cuban war of independence, the invasion of Puerto Rico, the Mexican annexation, or subsequent interventions in ... Caribbean and Central American nations surely would contest any ideas about U.S. neutrality .... [It is clear that] as a nation, El Norte is never, nor has it been, indifferent about Latin America. (Sandoval-Sánchez & Saporta Sternbach 2001: 25)
The use of the 3 ellipsis points (...) indicates that text from the original sentence has been omitted. The use of 4 ellipsis points (....) indicates that the material between the sentences has been omitted. Items in square brackets signal an addition or alteration to the original text, as in the above example.
Paraphrases and summaries of other authors' work are followed by a reference to the source details in parentheses.
Example: Ugrešic concludes the book with a reference to the ‘Witches from Rio’ affair in which she refutes any collective identification (1998: 273).
Alternatively, the author’s surname may be integrated into the text, followed immediately by the year of publication in parentheses.
Example: Ugrešic (1998: 273) concludes the book with a reference to the ‘Witches from Rio’ affair in which she refutes any collective identification.
For works with more than three authors, cite the name of the first author followed by et al. and the year.
Example: Roper, et al. (1980) OR (Roper, et al., 1980)
For authors with multiple articles or books published in the same year, distinguish the publications from each other by adding a,b,c etc. to the year immediately after the author's name. [In the reference list, order the titles by publication date, the earliest publication coming first. If, for example, you include references to three works by one author in a single year, those references are ordered alphabetically by title, and numbered Yeara, Yearb, and Yearc respectively].
Example: (Dickinson 1990a) - (Dickinson 1990b) etc.
When citing more than one source, separate the entries by using semi-colons.
Example: These tensions have been fully documented in the writing of various authors (Drakulić 1998; Jalušić 1994; Funk 1993; Elshtain 1995).
Chapter in an edited book, an article or a paper
Cite the authors of the article or chapter (not the editor, unless the work is that of the editor) and the year.
Anonymous works
Use title and year. Do not use Anon or Anonymous in your reference. For anonymous newspaper articles, provide title of the newspaper, day month year of publication and page number.
Example: (Sydney Morning Herald 15 January 2002: 15)
Electronic sources
In citing electronic journals, web pages or web sites, follow the same principles as for printed sources. For direct quotes, you may wish to indicate the paragraph number, preceded by the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para.
Example: (Myers 2000: para. 5)
If the author’s name is unknown, cite the web site URL.
Example: http://www.wumingfoundation.com/italiano/giap.htm
To cite a homepage, give the address of the site and the year of the last update.
Example: Online, available: http://www.wumingfoundation.com/ (2003). [Accessed 12 October 2005].
Interview Material and Personal Correspondence
The first time you cite from an interview or personal correspondence, use a footnote to give the relevant information, such as the name of the correspondent/interviewee (if appropriate), data about their social status, the name of the organization, place of interview, and date of the interview/correspondence. For second and subsequent references to the same interview/correspondence make it clear in the text to which interview/correspondence you are referring (do not use another footnote).
Example: 'According to interviewee Sister Mariani...' OR 'In her emails Sister Mariani wrote that...'
Reference list format: Books
One Author
Author surname, Initial (s) of first name(s)/or first name [either option is acceptable, but all references need to be consistent]. Year, Title. Edition. Publisher, Place of publication.
Example: Mehmet, O. 1999, Westernizing the Third World: The Eurocentricity of Economic Development Theories. 2nd ed., Routledge, London.
Two or More Authors
Author names linked by commas and an ampersand Year, Title, Edition. Publisher, Place of publication.
Example: Anthias, F. & Yuval Davis, N. 1993, Race, Nation, Gender, Colour and Class and the Anti-Racist Struggle. Routledge, London.
Edited Book
Editor (ed.) Year, Title. Edition, Publisher, Place of publication.
Example: Renne, T. (ed.) 1997, Ana’s Land: Sisterhood in Eastern Europe. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
Translated Book
Author Year, Title. Translator (Trans.), Edition. Publisher, Place of publication.
Example: Van Gennep, A. 1960, The Rites of Passage. 2nd ed., trans. M.B. Vizedom & G.L. Caffee. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Book Without a Personal Author
Name of organization. Year, Title. Edition. Publisher, Place of publication.
Example: Australian Government Publishing Service. 2002, Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers, 6th ed. AGPS, Canberra.
Book with no Author or Editor
Title Year. Publisher, Place of publication.
Example: Maximum Linux Security: A Hacker’s Guide to Protecting Your Linux Server and Workstation. 1999, Prentice Hall, Hampstead.
Reference List Format: Chapter in Edited Book
Author(s) of chapter Year, ‘Title of Chapter’ in Title of book, (ed.) or (eds) Editor Name, Publisher, Place of publication: page numbers.
Example: Heng, G. 1997, ‘“A Great Way to Fly”: Nationalism, the State and the Varieties of Third-World Feminism,’ in Feminist Genealogies, Colonial Legacies, Democratic Futures, (eds) M. J. Alexander & C. T. Mohanty. Routledge, New York: 30-45.
Reference List Format: Journal Articles
Journal Article from a Printed Journal
Author Year, ‘Title of Article’, Title of Journal, volume, number (if applicable, month): page numbers.
Example: Cuneen, G. & Hayllar, B. 1988, ‘Social Meaning of Conflict in Riots at the Australian Grand Prix Motorcycle Races’, Leisure Studies, vol. 7, no. 1: 1-20.
Journal Article from an Electronic Journal
Author Year, ‘Title of Article’, Title of Journal, volume, issue number. Online, available: Specific path or URL [Accessed + date].
Example: Drakulic, S. 1999, ‘How I Became a Witch: Nationalism, Sexism and Postcommunist Journalism in Croatia’, Media Studies Journal Online, available: http://archive.tol.cz/fforum/fforum.html [Accessed 5 May 2001].
Full Text Journal Article from an Electronic Database
Author Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume, issue. Online, available: Name of database and record number (if given) [Accessed + date].
Example: Baugher, D., Varanelli, A. & Weisbord, E. 2000, ‘Gender and Culture Diversity Occurring in Self-Formed Work Groups’, Journal of Managerial Issues, vol. 12, no. 4: 391-407. Online, available: Ovid/ABI-Inform/65651741 [Accessed 16 January 2002].
Reference List Format: Newspaper Articles
Author Year, ‘Article title’, Newspaper Title, Publication date, page number.
Example: Fray, P. 2002, ‘Harry, the Prince of Pot, Pool and Purple Prose’, Sydney Morning Herald, 14 January: 11.
A Newspaper Article from an Electronic Database
Author, Year, ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title , Day and Month: page number (if given). Online, available: Database name, Item number (if given) [Accessed + date].
Example: Musa, H. 2001, ‘Indigenous Art Depth Revealed’, Canberra Times, 11 December: 13. Online, Available: Dow Jones Interactive [Accessed 10 January 2002].
A Newspaper Article Available from the Publisher via the WWW
Author Year, ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title , Day and Month: page number (if given). Online, available: URL [Accessed + date].
Example: Dabkowski, S. 2002, ‘How a Plastic Problem May Just Dissolve’, The Age, 4. January. Online, available: http://www.theage.com.au/news/state/2002/02/04/ FFX319TP7XC.html [Accessed 13 February 2002].
Reference List Format: Conference Papers
Author Year, ‘Article Title’, Proceedings of Conference Name, Publisher, Place of publication: page number.
Example: Wu The-Yao 1975, ‘The Cultural Heritage of Singapore: The Essence of the Chinese Tradition’, Proceedings of the Symposium on the Cultural Heritage of Singapore, Institute of Humanities and the Social Sciences, College of Graduate Studies, Nanyang University: 44-46.
Reference List Format: World Wide Web
Web Document
Author Year, Title of document or page Day and Month (if available). Online, available: specific path or URL [Accessed + date].
Example: McEldowney, P. 1994, Women in Cinema: A Reference Guide Online, available: http://www.people.virginia.edu/~pm9k/libsci/womFilm.html#intro [Accessed 16 January 2002].
Web Document – Undated
Author n.d., Title. Online, available: URL [Accessed + date].
Example: Pritzker, T. n.d., Early Fragment from Central Nepal Online, available: http://www.ingress.com/~astanart/pritzker/pritzker.html [Accessed 8 June 1999].
Web document – No Author
Title Year. Online, available: URL [Accessed + date].
Example: The Grass is Always Greener 2002. Online, available: http://www.greener.com [Accessed 20 June 2002].
Titles in other languages
Titles in other languages should conform to the orthographic conventions of the language in question. Accent marks should be respected.
Example: García Canclini, N. 1990, Culturas híbridas: Estrategias para entrar y salir de la modernidad. Editorial Grijalbo, México. If citing sources from non-English language periodicals and journals, months should be in the language of publication.

Complaints Procedure

Authors who wish to submit a complaint related to the peer review process or other editorial decisions should contact the Journal Manager Paul.Allatson@uts.edu.au as a first point of contact. Issues which cannot be resolved satisfactorily by the Journal Manager may be escalated to the Editorial Advisory Board or to the Publisher, UTS ePress by contacting utsepress@uts.edu.au.

For further information, please see the COPE Code of Conduct for Journal Editors and Publishers.