The Evolution of Class 1 Integrons and the Rise of Antibiotic Resistance

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dc.contributor.author Gillings, Michael en_US
dc.contributor.author Boucher, Yan en_US
dc.contributor.author Labbate, Maurizio en_US
dc.contributor.author Holmes, Andrew en_US
dc.contributor.author Krishnan, Samyuktha en_US
dc.contributor.author Holley, Marita en_US
dc.contributor.author Stokes, Harold en_US
dc.contributor.editor en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2010-05-28T09:45:37Z
dc.date.available 2010-05-28T09:45:37Z
dc.date.issued 2008 en_US
dc.identifier 2008005543 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Gillings Michael et al. 2008, 'The Evolution of Class 1 Integrons and the Rise of Antibiotic Resistance', Amer Soc Microbiology, vol. 190, no. 14, pp. 5095-5100. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0021-9193 en_US
dc.identifier.other C1UNSUBMIT en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10453/8817
dc.description.abstract Class 1 integrons are central players in the worldwide problem of antibiotic resistance, because they can capture and express diverse resistance genes. In addition, they are often embedded in promiscuous plasmids and transposons, facilitating their lateral transfer into a wide range of pathogens. Understanding the origin of these elements is important for the practical control of antibiotic resistance and for exploring how lateral gene transfer can seriously impact on, and be impacted by, human activities. We now show that class 1 integrons can be found on the chromosomes of nonpathogenic soil and freshwater Betaproteobacteria. Here they exhibit structural and sequence diversity, an absence of antibiotic resistance genes, and a phylogenetic signature of lateral transfer. Some examples are almost identical to the core of the class 1 integrons now found in pathogens, leading us to conclude that environmental Betaproteobacteria were the original source of these genetic elements. Because these elements appear to be readily mobilized, their lateral transfer into human commensals and pathogens was inevitable, especially given that Betaproteobacteria carrying class 1 integrons are common in natural environments that intersect with the human food chain. The strong selection pressure imposed by the human use of antimicrobial compounds then ensured their fixation and global spread into new species. en_US
dc.language en_US
dc.publisher Amer Soc Microbiology en_US
dc.relation.isbasedon http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00152-08 en_US
dc.title The Evolution of Class 1 Integrons and the Rise of Antibiotic Resistance en_US
dc.parent Journal Of Bacteriology en_US
dc.journal.volume 190 en_US
dc.journal.number 14 en_US
dc.publocation Washington DC, USA en_US
dc.identifier.startpage 5095 en_US
dc.identifier.endpage 5100 en_US
dc.cauo.name SCI.Institute for Biotechnology of Infectious Diseases en_US
dc.conference Verified OK en_US
dc.for 060500 en_US
dc.personcode 0000030144 en_US
dc.personcode 0000050228 en_US
dc.personcode 106011 en_US
dc.personcode 0000050528 en_US
dc.personcode 0000050587 en_US
dc.personcode 0000033088 en_US
dc.personcode 105741 en_US
dc.percentage 100 en_US
dc.classification.name Microbiology en_US
dc.classification.type FOR-08 en_US
dc.edition en_US
dc.custom en_US
dc.date.activity en_US
dc.location.activity en_US
dc.description.keywords NA en_US
dc.staffid 105741 en_US


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