Hard and Soft Projects: a framework for analysis

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dc.contributor.author Crawford, Lynn en_US
dc.contributor.author Pollack, Julien en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2009-12-21T02:35:17Z
dc.date.available 2009-12-21T02:35:17Z
dc.date.issued 2004 en_US
dc.identifier 2004001481 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Crawford Lynn and Pollack Julien 2004, 'Hard and Soft Projects: a framework for analysis', Elsevier Science Limited and International Project Management Association, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 645-653. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0263-7863 en_US
dc.identifier.other C1 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10453/4860
dc.description.abstract This paper provides clarification on the use of the terms `hard' and `soft' in the context of project and program management, by exploring what it means for a project to be hard or soft. This paper draws on the authors' practice based research into large organisational change programs in a variety of contexts, and the literature on project management, systems thinking and evaluation. A framework for exploring the hardness and softness of project process and outcomes is provided. It acts as an aid to structured discussion and informed decision making about the application of methods for managing projects and programs and the appropriate methods for evaluating their success. This framework is designed to aid in the transfer of lessons learned to practice by offering a common point of comparison between projects, and has potential for use as a predictive aid to resourcing. Its use is demonstrated in three cases. en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier Science Limited and International Project Management Association en_US
dc.relation.hasversion Accepted manuscript version en_US
dc.relation.isbasedon http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2004.04.004 en_US
dc.rights NOTICE: This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication by Elsevier. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published by Elsevier. en_US
dc.title Hard and Soft Projects: a framework for analysis en_US
dc.parent International Journal of Project Management en_US
dc.journal.volume 22 en_US
dc.journal.number 8 en_US
dc.publocation Netherlands en_US
dc.identifier.startpage 645 en_US
dc.identifier.endpage 653 en_US
dc.cauo.name DAB.School of Built Environment en_US
dc.conference Verified OK en_US
dc.for 120201 en_US
dc.personcode 910883 en_US
dc.personcode 000744 en_US
dc.percentage 100 en_US
dc.classification.name Building Construction Management and Project Planning en_US
dc.classification.type FOR-08 en_US
dc.description.keywords Hard and soft, systems approach; project analysis, lessons learned en_US
dc.staffid 000744 en_US


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