The Cannabis Withdrawal Scale development: Patterns and predictors of Cannabis withdrawal and distress

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dc.contributor.author Allsop, David en_US
dc.contributor.author Norberg, Melissa en_US
dc.contributor.author Copeland, Jan en_US
dc.contributor.author Fu, Shanlin en_US
dc.contributor.author Budney, Alan en_US
dc.contributor.editor en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2012-10-12T03:34:24Z
dc.date.available 2012-10-12T03:34:24Z
dc.date.issued 2011 en_US
dc.identifier 2011000071 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Allsop David et al. 2011, 'The Cannabis Withdrawal Scale development: Patterns and predictors of Cannabis withdrawal and distress', Elsevier Inc, vol. 119, no. 1-2, pp. 123-129. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0376-8716 en_US
dc.identifier.other C1 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10453/18592
dc.description.abstract Background Rates of treatment seeking for cannabis are increasing, and relapse is common. Management of cannabis withdrawal is an important intervention point. No psychometrically sound measure for cannabis withdrawal exists, and as a result treatment developments cannot be optimally targeted. The aim is to develop and test the psychometrics of the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale and use it to explore predictors of cannabis withdrawal. Methods A volunteer sample of 49 dependent cannabis users provided daily scores on the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale during a baseline week and 2 weeks of abstinence. Results Internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91), test?retest stability (average intra-class correlation = 0.95) and content validity analysis show that the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale has excellent psychometric properties. Nightmares and/or strange dreams was the most valid item (Wald ?2 = 105.6, P < 0.0001), but caused relatively little associated distress (Wald ?2 = 25.11, P = 0.03). Angry outbursts were considered intense (Wald ?2 = 73.69, P < 0.0001) and caused much associated distress (Wald ?2 = 45.54, P < 0.0001). Trouble getting to sleep was also an intense withdrawal symptom (Wald ?2 = 42.31, P < 0.0001) and caused significant associated distress (Wald ?2 = 47.76, P < 0.0001). Scores on the Severity of Dependence Scale predicted cannabis withdrawal. Conclusions The Cannabis Withdrawal Scale can be used as a diagnostic instrument in clinical and research settings where regular monitoring of withdrawal symptoms is required. en_US
dc.language en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier Inc en_US
dc.relation.isbasedon http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.06.003 en_US
dc.title The Cannabis Withdrawal Scale development: Patterns and predictors of Cannabis withdrawal and distress en_US
dc.parent Drug and Alcohol Dependence en_US
dc.journal.volume 119 en_US
dc.journal.number 1-2 en_US
dc.publocation Clare, Ireland en_US
dc.identifier.startpage 123 en_US
dc.identifier.endpage 129 en_US
dc.cauo.name SCI.Chemistry and Forensic Sciences en_US
dc.conference Verified OK en_US
dc.for 110300 en_US
dc.personcode 0000072255 en_US
dc.personcode 0000072256 en_US
dc.personcode 0000072257 en_US
dc.personcode 103806 en_US
dc.personcode 0000072258 en_US
dc.percentage 100 en_US
dc.classification.name Clinical Sciences en_US
dc.classification.type FOR-08 en_US
dc.edition en_US
dc.custom en_US
dc.date.activity en_US
dc.location.activity en_US
dc.description.keywords Cannabis withdrawal; Cannabis treatment; Cannabis dependence; Marijuana withdrawal; Cannabis Withdrawal Scale en_US


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