Transformative education: Pathways to identity, independence and hope
Clemente Australia (CA) is an example of community embedded, socially supported university education (CESS). Essential elements of CA are respecting people for who they are and for where they are within their individual life journeys; building student capacity to be more proactive in reflecting upon and engaging with the world; learning with and relating to others; and promoting educative justice through the recognition of the students’ human rights to participate in tertiary education in a way that meets their personal and academic learning needs.
For the students, the university (Australian Catholic University) and other partners in CA, it is evident that there has been an ongoing shift from dependence upon the provision of materials and services to empowerment and enhanced capabilities in identifying the supports and processes required to meet the personal and professional needs of students, staff and community agencies. This shift has occurred through the scaffolding processes provided, the establishment of innovative partnerships and purposeful reflection. It has involved listening to one another, welcoming people into new worlds and challenging one another in the provision of transformative education to realise the fulfilment of hope for many Australians experiencing disadvantage.
key words: transformation; education; community; hope; homelessness; disadvantage
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006, Census of population and housing Australia, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
Benson, L, Harkavy, I & Puckett, J 2007, Dewey's dream: Universities and democracies in an age of education reform, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, PA.
Bloch, E 1995, The principle of hope, vols 1â3, trans. N Plaice, S Plaice & P Knight, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Butcher, J, Howard, P & McFadden, M 2003, 'Communities and universities: Partners for engaged citizenship', paper presented at International Symposium Universities and Communities: Partners in Building Capacity for Social Justice, Sydney, 13â15 February 2003.
Carlton, S & Soulsby, J 1999, Learning to grow older and bolder, National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester, UK.
Catalyst/Clemente Australia Forum 2010, Dignity, engagement, inclusionâ Catalyst/Clemente Australia Forum 2009, Australian Catholic University, Sydney.
Chang, E 1998, 'Hope, problem-solving ability, and coping in a college student population: Some implications for theory and practice', Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 54, vol. 7, pp. 953â62.
Cox, R & Pascall, G 1994, 'Individualism, self-evaluation and self-fulfilment in the experience of mature women students', International Journal of Lifelong Education, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 159â73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0260137940130206
Curry, L, Snyder, C, Cook, D, Ruby, B & Rehm, M 1997, 'Role of hope in academic and sport achievement', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 1257â67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1997
Delamont, S 1992, Fieldwork in educational settings: Methods, pitfalls and perspectives, Palmer, London.
Dench, S & Regan, J 1998, Learning in later life: Motivation and impact, Institute for Employment Studies, Brighton, UK.
Egan, L, Butcher, J, Howard, P, Hampshire, A, Henson, C & Homel, R 2006, The impact of tertiary-level humanities education for homeless and marginalised people, paper presented at the conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Adelaide, 27â30 November 2006. Available at: www.aare.edu.au/06pap/ega06635.pdf.
Emler, N & Fraser, E 1999, 'Politics: The education effect', Oxford Review of Education, vol. 25, no. 1/2, pp. 251â73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/030549899104242
Flatau, P, Zaretzky, K, Brady, M, Haigh, Y & Martin, R 2008, The cost-effectiveness of homelessness programs: A first assessment, Volumes 1 and 2, Final Report, AHURI, Melbourne.
Frankl, V 1963, Man's search for meaning: An introduction to Logotherapy, Beacon Press, Boston, MA.
Gallacher, J, Crossan, B, Mayes, T, Cleary, P, Smith, L & Watson, D 2007, 'Expanding our understanding of the learning cultures in community-based further education', Educational Review, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 501â17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00131910701619381
Gervasoni, A, Smith, J & Howard, P 2010, The Ballarat Clemente Program: A doorway to the treasures of humanities education for we 'who struggle a little bit ... to get us back out there into life, and, to see some sort of future', paper accepted for presentation at the Australian Association for Research in Education, Melbourne.
Hammond, C 2002, Learning to be healthy, The Wider Benefits of Learning Papers No. 3, Institute of Education, London.
Hammond, C 2004, 'Impacts of lifelong learning upon emotional resilience, psychological and mental health: Fieldwork evidence', Oxford Review of Education, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 551â68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305498042000303008
Hartog, J & Oosterbeek, O 1998, 'Health, wealth and happiness: Why pursue a higher education?', Economics of Education Review, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 245â56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7757(97)00064-2
Howard, P, Hampshire, A, Butcher, J, Saggers, S, Flatau, P, Marchant, T, Campton, J, Taouk, Y & Cherednichenko, B 2010, Catalysts for social inclusion: The practices and effectiveness of the CatalystâClemente program for social inclusion pathways to higher education, paper presented at the Australian Universities Community Engagement Alliance conference, Launceston, Tasmania.
Howard, P, Marchant, T, Hampshire, A, Butcher, J, Egan, L & Bredhauer, K 2008, 'Promoting social inclusion: Emerging evidence from the Catalystâ Clemente program', Australian Journal of Adult Learning, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 479â501.
Jarvis, P & Walker, J 1997, 'When the process becomes the product: Summer universities for seniors', Education and Ageing, vol. 12, pp. 60â68.
Johnstone, M 2001, 'Stigma, social justice and the rights of the mentally ill: Challenging the status quo', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Mental Health Nursing, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 200â09. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-0979.2001.00212.x
Liamputtong, P 2007, Researching the vulnerable: A guide to sensitive research methods, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Luby, J & Welsh, J 2006, Missed opportunities: The case for investment in learning and skills for homeless people, Crises, London.
Magaletta, P & Oliver, J 1999, 'The hope construct, will, and ways: Their relations with self-efficacy, optimism, and general well-being', Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 539â51.
Marmot, M & Wilkinson, R (eds) 1999, Social determinants of health, Oxford University Press, New York.
Maslow, A 1970, Motivation and personality, 3rd edn, Harper & Row, New York.
Mission Australia 2004, Homelessness: New understanding, new responses, Mission Australia Snapshot report, viewed 4 November 2010, www.sapo.org.au/binary/binary182/Homelessness.pdf.
Mission Australia 2007, Enhancing participation: New possibilities for disadvantaged Australians, Mission Australia Snapshot report, viewed 4 November 2010, www.missionaustralia.com.au/downloads/social-policy-reports/181-enhancing-participation-new-possibilities-for-disadvantaged-australians.
Parry, G, Moyser, G & Day, N 1992, Political participation and democracy in Britain, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Partis, M 2003, 'Hope in homeless people: A phenomenological study', Primary Health Care Research and Development, vol. 4, pp. 9â19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/1463423603pc118oa
Pinkney, S & Ewing, S 2006, The costs and pathways of homelessness: Developing policy-relevant economic analysis for the Australian Homelessness Service System, Department of Family and Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Canberra.
Ross, C & Mirowsky, J 1999, 'Refining the association between education and health: The effects of quantity, credential, and selectivity', Demography, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 445â60. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2648083
Saunders, P & Wong, M 2009, Still doing it tough: An update on deprivation and social exclusion among welfare service clients, report from the Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
Sen, A 1999, Development as freedom, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Shorris, E 2000, Riches for the poor: The Clemente course in the Humanities, rev. edn, Norton, New York.
Snyder, C 1994, The psychology of hope: You can get there from here, Free Press, New York.
Snyder, C 1995, 'Conceptualizing, measuring, and nurturing hope', Journal of Counseling & Development, vol. 73, pp. 355â60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1995.tb01764.x
Snyder, C 2002, 'Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind', Psychological Inquiry, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 249â75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1304_01
Snyder, C, Harris, C, Anderson, J, Holleran, S, Irving, L, Sigmon, S, Yoshinobu, L, Gibb, J, Langelle, C & Harney, P 1991, 'The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 570â85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.520
Snyder, C, Ilardi, S, Cheavens, J, Michael, S, Yamhure, L & Sympson, S 2000, 'The role of hope in cognitive behavior therapies', Cognitive Therapy and Research, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 747â62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005547730153
Snyder, C, Irving, L & Anderson, J 1991, 'Hope and health: Measuring the will and the ways', in C Snyder & D Forsyth (eds), The handbook of social and clinical psychology: The health perspective, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 285â307.
Snyder, C, Sympson, S, Ybasco, F, Borders, T, Babyak, M & Higgins, R 1996, 'Development and validation of the State Hope Scale', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 321â35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2061
Stevenson, J, Yashin-Shaw, I & Howard, P 2007, 'Reclaiming bodily dispositions through the humanities: Homeless people learning', International Journal of Vocational Education and Training, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 419â34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13636820701579654
St Vincent de Paul Society 2007, Don't dream it's over, St Vincent de Paul, Canberra.
Stockwell, T, Gruenewald, P, Toumbourou, J & Loxley, W (eds) 2005, Preventing harmful substance use: The evidence base for policy and practice, Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470713624
Tell, L 1999, 'Widening provision in higher education: Some non-traditional participants' experiences', Research Papers in Education, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 107â19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0267152990140107
Thomas, E 2007, 'Student engagement and learning in a community-based arts classroom', Teachers College Record, Columbia University, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 770â96.
Vinson, T 2007, Dropping off the edge: The distribution of disadvantage in Australia, Jesuit Social Services/Catholic Social Services Australia, Richmond, Victoria.
Wertheimer, A 1997, Images of possibility: Creating learning opportunities for adults with mental health difficulties, National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester, UK.
Metrics powered by PLOS ALM