Rural Municipal Development and Reform in Canada: Policy Learning through Local - Provincial Collaboration

John Martin, Gary Paget, Brian Walisser

Abstract


In a federated country like Canada, diversity challenges universal policy prescriptions for local governments. The success of its provincial governments, which have exclusive jurisdiction for systems of local government, depends on balancing the need to act comprehensively and systematically while dealing thoughtfully with the unique situation of individual local governments. Canada’s provinces are shifting their approach to strengthening rural governance – shifting away from more directive interventions and now seeking to facilitate capacity-building in a manner that is less state-centred, more bottom-up, and better adapted to variable local circumstances. A dialogue was organised to focus on this shift in provincial practice. It brought together more than 50 savvy and influential policy practitioners representing all provinces and most local government associations at the provincial level. Practice recommendations emerged for provinces, local government associations, and local governments focusing on concrete actions and tools but also on the potential for redefining the roles played by, and relations between, the associations and provincial governments.

Full Text:

PDF

References


AMM. (2011). Tools for Change. Retrieved January 2011, from Association of Manitoba Municipalities (AMM): www.amm.mb.ca/res_tools.html

Barzelay, M. (2001). The New Public Management: Improving Research and Policy Dialogue. University of California Press.

BC-MCSCD. (2010). Regional Districts, Parts 1 to 3. (S. Russo, & B. Walisser, Eds.) Retrieved January 2011, from Ministry of Community, Sport & Cultural Development, Government of British Columbia: www.cd.gov.bc.ca/lgd/history/mini_histories

Berdahl, L. (2006). The Federal Urban Role and Federal-Municipal Relations. (R. Young, & C. Leuprecht, Eds.) Retrieved June 2011, from Canada: The State of the Federation 2004: Municipal-Federal-Provincial Relations in Canada: www.ppm-ppm.ca/publicationssotf04.asp

Bingham, R. (1976). The Adoption of Innovation by Local Government. Toronto: Lexington Books.

Bollman, R., & Clemenson, H. (2008). Structure and Change in Canada's Rural Demography: An Update to 2006 with Provincial Detail. Retrieved June 2011, from Statistics Canada, Agriculture and Rural Working Paper Series: www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/21-601-m/21-601-m2008090-eng.pdf

CLGF. (2009). Local Government System in Canada. Retrieved January 2011, from Commonwealth Local Government Forum (Country Profiles): www.clgf.org.uk/index.cfm/PageID/13/ViewPage/Country-profiles

Courchene, T. J. (1995). Celebrating Flexibility: An Interpretive Essay on the Evolution of Canadian Federalism. Montréal: C.D. Howe Institute.

C-SPO. (2009). Final Report. Retrieved April 2011, from Symposium on Strengthening the Rural Municipal Sector [Caucus of Senior Policy Officials]: www.muniscope.ca/_files/file.php?fileid=fileysYCGUoseM & filename=file_Symposium_2008_FINAL.pdf

C-SPO. (2008). Provincial Feature Presentations. Retrieved June 2011, from Symposium on Strengthening the Rural Municipal Sector [Caucus of Senior Policy Officials]: www.muniscope.ca/home/Symposium/index.php

Herbert-Cheshire, L. (2000). Contemporary Strategies for Rural Community Development in Australia: a Governmentality Perspective. Journal of Rural Studies , 16 (2), 203-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0743-0167(99)00054-6

Hood, C. (1991). A Public Management for All Seasons? Public Administration , 69 (1), 3-19.

Kitchen, H. (2002). Canadian Municipalities: Fiscal Trends and Sustainability. Retrieved June 2011, from Canadian Tax Journal: www.ctf.ca/ctfweb/Documents/PDF/2002ctj/2002ctj1_kitchen.pdf

Kitchen, H., & Slack, E. (2006). Trends in Public Finance in Canada. Retrieved June 2011, from The Institute on Municipal Finance and Governance: www.utoronto.ca/mcis/imfg/pdf/trends%20in%20public%20finance%20in%20Canada%20-%20June%201.pdf

Kretzmann, J. P., & McKnight, J. L. (1993). Building Communities from the Inside Out: A Path Toward Finding and Mobilizing a Community's Assets. Evanston, IL: Institute for Policy Research.

Leo, C. (2006). Deep Federalism: Respecting Community Difference in National Policy. Canadian Journal of Political Science , 39 (3), 481â506.

Martel, L., & Caron-Malenfant, Ã. (2007). Portrait of the Canadian Population in 2006: Population and Dwelling Counts, 2006 Census. Retrieved January 2011, from Statistics Canada: www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-550/index-eng.cfm

Martin, J. (2000). Innovation Strategies in Australian Local Government (Occasional Paper 4). Retrieved May 2011, from Australian Housing & Urban Research Institute: www.ahuri.edu.au/downloads/publications/Occasional_Paper_4.pdf

O'Brien, A. (1993). Municipal Consolidation in Canada and its Alternatives. Retrieved January 2011, from Muniscope (ICURR Press Publications Archive): www.muniscope.ca/library/publications/index.php#Municipal

Osborne, D., & Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Painter, M. (1991). Intergovernmental Relations in Canada: An Institutional Analysis. Canadian Journal of Political Science , 24 (2), 269-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0008423900005084

Province of Québec. (2011). Mandat : Conférences régionales des élus (CRÃ). Retrieved January 2011, from Portail Québec: www.formulaire.gouv.qc.ca/cgi/affiche_doc.cgi?dossier=8996 & table=0

QC-MAMROT. (2011). Conférences régionales des élus. Retrieved April 2011, from Québec Ministère des Affaires municipales, Régions et Occupation du territoire: www.mamrot.gouv.qc.ca/developpement-regional-et-rural/conferences-regionales-des-elus

QC-MAMROT. (2006). National Policy on Rurality, A Source of Strength for Québec, 2007-2014. Retrieved April 2011, from Québec Ministère des Affaires municipales, Régions et Occupation du territoire: www.mamrot.gouv.qc.ca/pub/developpement_regional/ruralite/politique_nationale_ruralite/ruralite_politique_angl.pdf

Sancton, A. (1993). Local Government Reorganization in Canada since 1975. Retrieved January 2011, from Muniscope (ICURR Press Publications Archive): www.muniscope.ca/library/publications/index.php#Municipal

Sancton, A. (2000). Merger Mania: The Assault on Local Government. McGill-Queen's University Press.

Sancton, A. (2006). Municipal Mergers and Demergers in Quebec and Ontario. Retrieved January 2011, from Annual Meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, 2006: www.cpsa-acsp.ca/papers-2006/Sancton.pdf

Sancton, A. (2003). Why Municipal Amalgamations? Halifax, Toronto, Montréal. Retrieved January 2011, from Institute of Intergovernmental Relation (Queen's University, Kingston ON): www.queensu.ca/iigr/conf/Arch/03/03-2/Sancton.pdf

Sancton, A., James, R., & Ramsay, R. (2000). Amalgamation vs. Inter-Municipal Cooperation: Financing Local and Infrastructure Services. Retrieved May 2011, from Muniscope (ICURR Press Publications Archive): www.muniscope.ca/_files/file.php?fileid=fileNipcFCJvOK & filename=file_amalgamation_vs.pdf

Shucksmith, M. (2010). Disintegrated Rural Development? Neo-endogenous Rural Development, Planning and Place-Shaping in Diffused Power Contexts. Sociologia Ruralis , 50 (1), 1-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9523.2009.00497.x

Spicer, Z. (2010, November). Institutional Policy Learning and Formal Federal-urban Engagement in Canada. (G. Sansom, Ed.) Retrieved January 2011, from Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance (Issue 7): epress.lib.uts.edu.au/ojs/index.php/cjlg/article/view/1892/2035

Statistics Canada. (2006a). Census subdivision types by province and territory. Retrieved June 2011, from Census 2006: www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/ref/dict/tables/table-tableau-7-eng.cfm

Statistics Canada. (2006b). Population and dwelling counts. Retrieved June 2011, from Census 2006: www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/hlt/97-550/Index.cfm?TPL=P2C & Page=FLTR & LANG=Eng & T=302 & S=1 & O=A

Statistics Canada. (2009). Population of census metropolitan areas (2006 Census boundaries). Retrieved January 2011, from Statistics Canada: www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/demo05a-eng.htm

Tennant, P., & Zirnhelt, D. (1973). Metropolitan Government in Vancouver: the Strategy of Gentle Imposition. Canadian Public Administration , 16 (1), 124-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-7121.1973.tb02113.x




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5130/cjlg.v0i10.2687