Review on the fundamental usage of Bills of Quantities (BQ) by contracting organisations
Detail literature review indicates a growing concern over the purpose of the BQ to the practice and needs of contracting organisations. However, the number of studies dedicated to comprehensively review how BQ is used by these organisations is limited. This review is conducted with the aim to identify the fundamental usage of BQ to contracting organisations; especially within the parameter of a project period and management functions. The main three objectives are: (1) to comprehensively identify relevant literature concerning the usage of BQ to contracting organisations, (2) to review the literature in order to identify the usage of BQ to contracting organisations, and (3) to systematically synthesize the outcome of the review in order to identify the fundamental usage of BQ to contracting organisations. Various literature findings are reviewed and validated to support the study’s outcome. As a result, this study manage to identify thirty fundamental usage of BQ arranged according to the parameter of interest. The significance of this study supports the evident usage of BQ by contracting organisations. It further enhances the current knowledge pertaining to its application in the industry and advancing further research pertaining on the application of BQ in the construction industry.
AIQS. (2001). Guaranteed Bills of Quantities - discussion paper. 1 - 7
Ashworth, A. (2004). Cost studies of building (4th Ed.). Essex: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Ashworth, A. and Hogg, K. (2007). Willis's practice and procedure for the quantity surveyor (12th Ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Atkin, B. (1995). Information management of construction projects. In P. Brandon & M. Betts (Eds.), Integrated construction information. London: E & FN Spon.
Baccarini, D. and Davis, P. (2002). Bills of Quantities - A Literature Review. The Building Economist, Sept.(2002), 10-16.
Benedict, J. (1972). The unpriceable items in Bills of Quantities. The Quantity Surveyor, 29(2), 47-50.
Blyth, I. (2001). To Bill or Not to Bill. The Building Economist, June(2001), 4-12.
Brook, M. (2008). Estimating and tendering for construction work (4th ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
Bryman, A. (2008). Social research methods - 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cattell, D. W., Bowen, P. A. and Kaka, A. P. (2007). Review of unbalanced bidding models in construction. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 133(8), 562 - 573.
Choy, W. K. and Sidwell, A. C. (1991). Bills of Quantities continued - Sources of variations in Australian construction contracts. Australian Construction Law Newsletter(21), 10-11.
Cornick, T. and Mather, J. (1999). Construction project teams - making them work profitably. London: Thomas Telford.
Davis, P. R. and Baccarini, D. (2004, 7-8 September 2004). The use of bills of quantities in construction projects - an Australian survey. Paper presented at the International Construction Research Conference of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (COBRA 2004), Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds.
Davis, P. R., Love, P. E. D. and Baccarini, D. (2009). Bills of quantities: nemesis or nirvana. Structural Survey, 27(2), 99-108.
Emmitt, S. and Yeomans, D. (2001). Specifying buildings - a design management perspective. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Farrell, P. (2011). Writing a built environment dissertation. Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.
Fryer, B., Egbu, C., Ellis, R. and Gorse, C. (2004). The practice of construction management. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Griffith, A., Stephenson, P. and Watson, P. (2000). Management system for construction. Essex: Pearson Education.
Hackett, M., Robinson, I. and Statham, G. (2007). The aqua group guide to procurement, tendering and contract administration. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Hamimah, A., Abdul Hadi, M. N., Siti Maimunah, M. A., Azizan, S. and Chong, H. Y. (2011). Bills of Quantities: Perspectives of Contractors in Malaysia. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(11), 863-873.
Holes, L. (1990). Finding an alternative. Chartered Quantity Surveyors(May 1990), 10-11.
Hughes, G. A. (1978). The Anatomy of Quantity Surveying. Lancaster, England: The Construction Press Ltd.
Jaggar, D., Ross, A., Love, P. E. D. and Smith, J. (2001). Overcoming information opacity in construction: A commentary. Logistics Information Management, 14(5/6), 413 - 420.
Khairuddin. (2011). In need to assess the effectiveness of bills of quantities. Paper presented at the 10th Management in Construction Researchers (MiCRA) Conference (26 - 27 July 2011), International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Kirkham, R. (2007). Ferry and Brandon's cost planning of building (8th Ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Kodikara, G. W. (1990). Data flow in building contractor organisations. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Loughborough University of Technology, Loughborough.
Kodikara, G. W., Thorpe, A. and McCaffer, R. (1993). The use of bills of quantities in building contractor organisations. Construction Management and Economics, 11, 261-269.
Kwakye, A. A. (1997). Construction Project Administration in Practice. Essex: Addison Wesley Longman Limited.
Lee, S., Trench, W. and Willis, A. (2011). Willis's elements of quantity surveying (11th Ed.). Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.
Lenard, D. J. (1991). Cost efficiency in the building and construction industry. The Building Economist, 30(2), 5-14.
Lucko, G. and Rojas, E. (2010). Research Validation: Challenges and Opportunities in the Construction Domain. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 136(1), 127-135.
McDonagh, N. H. (1995). Information systems research in construction - a foreword. In P. Brandon & M. Betts (Eds.), Integrated construction information. London: E & FN Spon.
Mohamed, S. and Stewart, R. A. (2003). An empirical investigation of users' perceptions of web-based communication on a construction project. Automation in Construction, 12(1), 43-53.
Mohd Hisham, A. and Azman, W. N. (2008). Bringing back the dead: Operationalizing the Bills of Quantitites. Paper presented at the International Conference for Project Management (18-20 November 2008), Universiti Malaya.
Morledge, R. and Kings, S. (2006). Bills of Quantities - A time for change? Paper presented at the International Conference in the Built Environment in the 21st Century (ICiBE 2006), Mara University of Technology, Shah Alam.
Nourbakhsh, M., Rosli, M. Z., Irizarry, J., Zolfagharian, S. and Gheisari, M. (2012). Mobile application prototype for on-site information management in construction industry. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 19(5).
Odeyinka, H., Kelly, S. and Perera, S. (2009). An evaluation of the budgetary reliability of bills of quantities in building procurement. Paper presented at the RICS Foundation Construction and Building Research Conference (COBRA 2009), University of Cape Town
Rosli, A. R., Muzani, M. and Siti Nurhuda, A. W. (2006). Bills of quantities - are they still useful and relevant today? Paper presented at the International conference on construction industry (21 - 25 June 2006), Padang, Indonesia.
Rosli, A. R., Muzani, M. and Siti Nurhuda, A. W. (2008). Bills of Quantities - Are they still useful and relevant today? The Building Economist, March, 16-23.
Seeley, I. H. (1997). Quantity Surveying Practice (2nd Ed.). London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
Seeley, I. H. and Winfield, R. (1999). Building quantities explained (5th Ed.). London: Macmillan and Co. Ltd.
Shamsulhadi, B. (2011). Bills of Quantities: Raison D'etre? In K. Khalil (Ed.), Issues in Construction and Quantity Surveying (pp. 182-198). Kuala Lumpur: IIUM Press.
Shamsulhadi, B. and Fadhlin, A. (2012a). Conceptualizing issues relating to the bills of quantities. Paper presented at the ASEAN Post Graduate Seminar in the Built Environment, University Malaya.
Shamsulhadi, B. and Fadhlin, A. (2012b). Exploring issues on the usage of the bills of quantities and identifying relevant research area. Paper presented at the Management in Construction Research Association Postgraduate Conference, UTM Razak School of Engineering and Advanced Technology.
Shamsulhadi, B. and Fadhlin, A. (2012c, 7-10 July). Understanding the challenges in sustaining the bills of quantities in Malaysia. Paper presented at the 16th Pacific Association of Quantity Surveyors Congress (PAQS 2012), Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei.
Sierra, J. (1984a). Bills of Quantities - The roots of the quantity surveyor (Part 1). The Building Economist, 22(4), 379-380.
Sierra, J. (1984b). Bills of Quantities -The roots of the quantity surveyor (Part 2). The Building Economist, 23(1), 10.
Skinner, D. W. H. (1979). An analysis of the utility of Bills of Quantities in the process of building contracting. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of Aston in Birmingham, Birmingham.
Skinner, D. W. H. (1980). The contractor's use of bills of quantities, CIOB Occasional Paper No. 24. Berkshire: Chartered Institute of Building.
Smith, J. and Hoong, W. K. (1985). Bills of Quantities in Singapore - A survey of their use and application. The Building Economist, 24(2), 18-22.
Turner, D. F. (1983). Quantity Surveying - Practice and administration (3rd Ed.). New York: George Godwin.
Waterworth, H. W. and Weddle, A. E. (1978). Bills of Quantities for landscape works. The Quantity Surveyor, 35(1), 244-245.
Wexler, H. E. (1986). Past, present and future of quantity surveying. The Building Economist, 24(4), 2-5.
Wilcox, C. and Snape, J. A. (1980). Measurement of Construction Work (Second Edition). London: George Godwin Limited.
Wilson, O. D., Sharpe, K. and Kenley, R. (1987). Estimates given and tenders received: A comparison. Construction Management and Economics, 5(not mentioned), 211 - 226.
Winch, G. M. (2010). Managing construction projects - 2nd Ed. Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.
Wood, B. and Kenley, R. (2004). The effectiveness of the bills of quantities in Australia. Journal of Construction Research, 5(2), 291 - 309.