Strategies for effective management of health and safety in confined site construction

John Spillane, Lukumon O. Oyedele


Abstract

Purpose: The overall aim of this research is to identify and catalogue the numerous managerial strategies for effective management of health and safety on a confined, urban, construction site.

Design/Methodology/Approach: This is achieved by utilising individual interviews, focus groups discussion on selected case studies of confined construction sites, coupled with a questionnaire survey.

Findings: The top five key strategies include (1) Employ safe system of work plans to mitigate personnel health and safety issues; (2) Inform personnel, before starting on-site, of the potential issues using site inductions; (3) Effective communication among site personnel; (4) Draft and implement an effective design site layout prior to starting on-site; and (5) Use of banksman (traffic co-ordinator) to segregate personnel from vehicular traffic.

Practical Implication: The construction sector is one of the leading industries in accident causation and with the continued development and regeneration of our urban centres, confined site construction is quickly becoming the norm - an environment which only fuels accident creation within the construction sector.

Originality/Value: This research aids on-site management that requires direction and assistance in the identification and implementation of key strategies for the management of health and safety, particularly in confined construction site environments.

Keywords

Brown Field Construction Sites; City Centre Development; Confined Site Construction; Health and Safety; Personnel Management; Project Management; Site Management; Productivity; Space Management; Urban Development.

Full Text

PDF

References

Atkin, B., Borgbrant, J. & Josephson, P.-E. 2003, Construction Process Improvement, Wiley-Blackwell, UK

Australian Safety and Compensation Council, 2007, National Code of Practice for Induction for Construction Work, Australian Government, Australia

Burch T. 1985, Planning and Organisational Problems Associated with Confined Sites, The Practice of Site Management, Vol. 3, Chartered Institute of Building, Ascot, CIOB, UK

Buskin, S. E. & Paulozzi, L. J. 1984, 'Fatal Injuries in the Construction Industry in Washington State', American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 11 (4), 453-460

Carter, G. & Smith, S. D. 2006, 'Safety Hazard Identification on Construction Projects', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 132 (2), 197-205

Chan, D. W. M. & Kuamaraswamy, M. M. 2002, 'Compressing Construction Durations: Lessons Learned from Hong Kong Building Projects' International Journal of Project Management, 20 (1), 23-35

Chaturvedi, P. 2005, Managing Safety: Challenges Ahead – Volume 1, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi

Cheah, C. Y. J. 2007, 'Construction Safety and Health Factors at the Industry Level: The Case of Singapore', Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 12 (22), 81-99

Choudhry, M. R. & Fanga, D. 2008, 'Why Operatives Engage in Unsafe Work Behaviour: Investigating Factors on Construction Sites', Safety Science, 46 (4), 566-584

Cooper, D. M. 2006, 'Exploratory Analyses of the Effects of Managerial Support and Feedback Consequences on Behavioural Safety Maintenance', Journal of Organizational Behaviour Management, 26 (3), 1-41

Dalton, M. 2002, Fatal accidents in the Irish construction industry 1991-2001: A Survey of Contributory Factors, Health and Safety Authority, UK

Davis, V. J. & Tomasin, K. 2005, Construction Safety Handbook, Thomas Telford, UK

Dawson, S. 1988, Safety at Work: The Limits of Self-Regulation, CUP Archive, UK

Denzin, N. K. 1978, The Research Act, 2nd Ed, McGraw Hill, USA

Edwards, D. J. & Holt, G. D. 2008, 'Construction Workers' Health and Safety Knowledge: Initial Observations on some Test-Result Data', Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 6 (1), 65-80

Egan, J. 1998, Accelerating Change – A report by the strategic forum for construction, Chaired by Sir John Egan The report of the Construction Task Force to the Deputy Prime Minister, John Prescott, on the scope for improving the quality and efficiency of UK construction, Strategic forum for construction, Department of trade and Industry, England, Crown Copyright, UK

Elinwa, A. U. & Joshua, M. 2001, 'Time Overrun Factors in Nigeria Construction Industry', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 127 (5), 419-425

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work 2000, The State of Occupational Safety and Health in the European Union – Pilot Study ISBN 92-828-9272-7, UK, pp. 1

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work 2001, Accident Prevention in the Construction Sector TE-35-01-287-EN-D, European Agency for Safety and Health at Work: Belgium

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work 2011, The Construction Sector has one of the Worst Occupational Safety and Health Records in Europe Accessed on 29th June, 2011, available at: http://osha.europa.eu/en/sector/construction, pp. 1.

Field, A. 2005, Discovering Statistics using SPSS, 3rd Ed, Sage Publications limited, UK

Gibb, A. G. F., Haslam, R., Gyi, D. E., Hide, S. & Duff, R. 2006, 'What Causes Accidents?', Proceedings of the ICE - Civil Engineering, 159 (6), pp. 46–50

Guo, H. 2009, 'Rethinking Construction Project Management using the VP-Based Manufacturing Management Model' Thesis from the Department of Building and Real Estate, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University; Hong Kong.

Hare, B., Maloney, B., Cameron, I. & Duff, A. R. 2005, 'Improving Consultation and Worker Engagement in the Construction Industry', Proceedings of the 2nd Scottish Conference for Postgraduate Researchers of the Built and Natural Environment, Glasgow: Caledonian University, pp. 151-160

Harper, A. C., Cordery, J. L., de Klerk, N. H., Sevastos, P., Geelhoed, E., Gunson, C., Robinson, L., Sutherland, M., Osborn, D. & Colquhoun, J. 1997, 'Curtin Industrial Safety Trial: Managerial Behaviour and Program Effectiveness', Safety Science, 24 (3), 173-179.

Harris, F., McCaffer, R. & Edum-Fotwe, F. 2006, Modern Construction Management, 6th Ed., Wiley-Blackwell, UK

Haslam, R. A., Hide, S. A., Gibb, A. G. F., Gyi, D. E., Pavitt, D., Aktinson, S. & Duff, A. R. 2005, 'Contributing Factors in Construction Accidents', Applied Ergonomics, 36 (4), 401-415

Haslam, R. A., Hide, S. A., Gibb, A. G. F., Gyi, D. E., Pavitt, D., Aktinson, S. & Duff, A. R. 2005, 'Contributing Factors in Construction Accidents', Applied Ergonomics, 36 (4), 401-415

Health and Safety Authority 2001, Code of Practice for Working in Confined Spaces Health and Safety Authority, Dublin, Ireland

Health and Safety Authority 2008, Use of Mobile Machinery on Construction Sites – Information Sheet Health and Safety Authority, the Metropolitan Building, James Joyce Street, Dublin 1

Health and Safety Authority 2011, Plant and Equipment – Transport Management on Construction Sites Available at: http://www.hsa.ie/eng/Your_Industry/Construction/Plant_and_Machinery/ Accessed on: 4th July, 2011

Health and Safety Executive 1996, Safety Signs and Signals - Guidance on Regulations London, Health and Safety Books, UK

Health and Safety Executive 2003, HSE Construction Blitz Targeting Mobile Plant, Vehicles and lifting Operations HSE Press Release, 21st of February 2003, Health and Safety Executive, UK

Health and Safety Executive 2009a, Health and Safety Induction for Smaller Construction Companies 2nd Ed., Crown Copyright, UK

Health and Safety Executive 2009b, Health and Safety Statistics 2007/08 Crown copyright, HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk: UK.

Health and Safety Executive 2010a, Statistics on Fatal Injuries in the Workplace 2009/10 Accessed on; 22nd June, 2010. Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/fatalinjuries.htm pp. 1.

Health and Safety Executive 2010b, Work-related Injuries and Ill Health in Construction Accessed on 22nd June, 2010, available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/industry/construction/index.htm pp. 1.

Hegazy, T. & Elbeltagi, E. 1999, 'EvoSite: Evolution-based Model for Site Layout Planning' Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 13 (3), 198-206

Holroyd, T. M. 1999, Site Management for Engineers, Thomas Telford, UK, pp. 77.

Holt, J. A. 2005, Principles of Construction Safety, Wiley-Blackwell, New Jersey, N.J., USA

Hyoung, J. I., Kwon, Y., Kim, S., Kim, Y., Su Ju, Y. & Lee, H. 2009, 'The Characteristics of Fatal Occupational Injuries in Korea's Construction Industry 1997–2004', Safety Science, 47 (8), 1159–1162

International Labour Office 1999, Safety, Health and Welfare on Construction Sites – A Training Manual International Labour Organisation; Geneva, ISBN 92-2-109182-1, pp 1- 134

International Labour Organisation 2005, Joint Press Release ILO/WHO Number of Work related Accidents and Illnesses Continues to Increase ILO and WHO Join in Call for Prevention Strategies Press release, April, 2005, ILO/05/21.

Kartam, N. A., Flood, I. & Koushki, P. 2000, Construction Safety in Kuwait: Issues, Procedures, Problems, and Recommendations', Safety Science, 36 (3), 163-184

Kelsey, J., Winch, G. & Penn, A. 2001, Understanding the Project Management Process: Requirements Capture for the Virtual Construction Site Bartlett Research, paper number 15, University College London, UK.

Khalafallah, A. & El-Rayes, K. 2004, 'Safety and Cost Considerations in Site Layout Planning', Housing and Building Research Centre Journal, 1 (1), 141-150

Lambeck, R. & Eschemuller, J. 2008, Urban Construction Project Management, McGraw Hill Professional, USA

Langford, D., Rowlinson, S. & Sawacha, E. 2008, 'Safety Behaviour and Safety Management: It's Influence on The Attitudes of Workers in the UK Construction Industry', Engineering Construction and Architectural Management, 7 (2), 133-140

Laurier, E. 2010, Participant Observation In: Clifford, N., French, S. & Valentine, G. Key Methods in Geography, SAGE Publications Ltd., UK

Leopold, E. & Leonard, S. 1987, 'Cost of Construction Accidents to Employers', Journal of Occupational Accident, 8 (4), 273-294

Long, N. D., Ogunlana, S., Qunag, T. & Lam, K.C. 2004, 'Large Construction Projects in Developing Countries: A Case of Vietnam', International Journal of Project Management, 22 (7), 553-561

Loosemore, M & Lee, P. 2002, 'Communication Problems with Ethnic Minorities in the Construction Industry', International Journal of Project Management, 20 (7), 517-524

Loosemore, M, Dainty, A. & Lingard, H. 2003, Human Resource Management in Construction Projects: Strategic and Operational Approaches, Taylor and Francis, UK, pp. 211.

Mallasi, Z. & Dawood, N .N. 2002, 'Registering Space Requirements of Construction Operations Using Site-PECASO Model', International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction CIB w78 conference 2002, Aarhus School of Architecture.

Mawdesley, M. J., Al-jibouri, S., H., & Yang, H. 2002, 'Genetic Algorithms for Construction Site Layout in Project Planning', Journal of Construction Engineering and Planning, 128 (5), 418-426

McDonald, N. & Hrymak, V. 2002, Safety Behaviour in the Construction Sector: Report to the Health and Safety Authority, Dublin & the Health and Safety Executive, Northern Ireland Health and Safety Executive, UK

Mitropoulos, P., Abdelhamid, T. S. & Howell, G. A. 2005, 'Systems Model of Construction Accident Causation', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 131 (7), 816–825

Mohamed, S. 2002, 'Safety Climate in Construction Environment', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 128 (5), 375-384

Mossey, D. 2009, Early Contractor Involvement in Building Procurement: Contracts, Partnering and Project Management, John Wiley and Sons, UK

Muslea, I, Minton, S. & Knoblock, C. A. 2000, Selective Sampling with Redundant Views American Association for Artificial Intelligence, Proceedings of AAAI-2000, Austin, TX, AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA, USA, pp. 621–626.

Ng, T. S., Cheng, P. K. & Skitmore, M. R. 2005, 'A Framework for Evaluating the Safety Performance of Construction Contractors', Building and Environment, 40 (10), 1347-1355

Occupational Safety and Health Administration 2004, Permit-required Confined Spaces U.S.; OSHA Publications Office, U.S. Department of Labour, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, N-3101, Washington, DC.

Ogunlana, S. O., Promkuntong, K. & Jearkjirm, V. 1999, 'Construction Delays in a Fast-Growing Economy: Compare Thailand with other Economies', International Journal of Project Management, 14 (1), 37-45

Ojanen, K., Seppala, A., & Aaltonen, M. 1988, 'Measurement Methodology for the Effects of Accident Prevention Programs', Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health, 14 (1), 95–96

Okpala, D. C. & Aniekwu, A. N. 1988, 'Causes of High Costs of Construction in Nigeria', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 114 (2), 233-244

Olson, H. C., Fine, S. A., Myers, D. C. & Jennings, M. C. 1981, 'The Use of Functional Job Analysis in Establishing Performance Standards for Heavy Equipment Operators', Personnel Psychology, 34 (2), 351-164

Pinto, A., Nunes, I. L. & Riberio, R. A. 2011, 'Occupational Risk Assessment in Construction Industry – Overview and Reflection', Safety Science, 49 (5), 616-624

Ringen, K. & Seegal, J. 1995, 'Safety and Health in Construction Industry', Annual Review of Public Health, 16, 165–188

Roberts, P. W. & Sykes, H. 2000, Urban Regeneration: A Handbook, SAGE Publications, UK, pp. 27

Rowlinson, S., Mohamed, S. & Lam, S.-W. 2003, 'Hong Kong Construction Foremen's Safety responsibilities: A Case Study of Management Oversight', Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10 (1), 27-35

Sahli, B. P. & Armstrong, C. W. 1992, 'Confined Space Fatalities in Virginia', Journal of Occupational Medicine, 34 (9), 910-917

Sawacha, E., Naoum, S. & Fong, D. 1999, 'Factors Affecting Safety Performance on Construction Sites', International Journal of Project Management, 17 (5), 309-315

Sejas, M. 2009, The Importance of Site Induction Training, Ezine Articles, available at: http://ezinearticles.com/comment.php?The-Importance-of-Site-Induction-Training & id=3227052 accessed on 31st August 2011

Shain, M. 2004, 'The Duty to Prevent Emotional Harm at Work: Arguments from Science and Law, Implications for Policy and Practice', Science Technology Society, 24 (4), 305-315

Sharma, R. 2009, Lack of Space around Construction Site Delaying Airport Modernisation, The Indian Express Limited, Monday, August 17th, India

Song, L., Mohamed, Y. & AbouRisk, S. M. 2009, 'Early Contractor Involvement in Design and Its Impact on Construction Schedule Performance', Journal of Management Engineering, 25 (1), 12-20

Spillane, J. P., Oyedele, L. O., Konanahalli, A., McKenna, E. & Von Meding, J. K. 2009, 'Confined Site Construction: Issues Regarding Implementation of Health and Safety', 6th International Conference on Innovation in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC), The Nittany Lion, Pennsylvania State University, USA, June 9th – 11th.

Spillane, J. P., Oyedele, L. O., Von Meding, J. K. & Konanahalli, A. 2010, Material Management within Confined Construction Sites, COBRA Conference, Dauphine University, Paris, France, 2nd & 3rd September.

Spillane, J. P., Oyedele, L. O., Von Meding, J. K. & Konanahalli, A. 2011a, Confined Site Construction: A Qualitative review of Issues Regarding Health and Safety On-site, Association of Researchers in Research Management (ARCOM), Conference in the University of the West of England, Bristol, UK on the 5th – 7th of September.

Spillane, J. P., Oyedele, L. O., Von Meding, J. K., Konanahalli, A., Jaiyeoba, B. E. & Tijani, I K. 2011b, 'Confined Site Construction: A Qualitative Investigation of Critical Issues Affecting Management of Health and Safety', Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology, 2 (7), 138-146

Tam, C. M., Tong, T. K. L., Leung, A. W. T. & Chiu, G. W. C. 2002, 'Site Layout Planning using Non-Structural Fuzzy Decision Support Systems', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 128 (3), 220-231

Tan-Wilhelm, D., Witte, K., Liu, W. Y., Newman, L. S., Janssen, A., Ellison, C., Yancey, A., Sanderson, W. & Henneberger, P. K. 2000, 'Impact of a Worker Notification Program: Assessment of Attitudinal and Behavioural Outcomes', American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 37 (2), 205-13

Teo, E. A. L., Ling, F. Y. Y. & Chong, A. F. W. 2005, 'Framework for Project Managers to Manage Construction Safety', International Journal of Project Management, 23 (4), 329-341

Tindiwensi, D. 2000, Integration of Buildability Issues in Construction Projects in Developing Economies Department of Civil Engineering, Makerere University P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.

Tommelein, I. D. & Zouein, P. P. 1993, 'Interactive Dynamic Layout Planning', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 119 (2), 266-287

Trajkovski, S. & Loosemore, M. 2006, 'Safety Implications of low-English Proficiency among Migrant Construction Site Operatives', International Journal of Project Management, 24 (5), 446-452

United Nations 2008, World Urbanisation Prospects: The 2007 Revision - Highlights Department of Economic and Social Affairs – Population Division, USA

United Nations, 2010, World Urbanisation Prospectus: The 2009 Revision – Highlights Department of Economic and Social Affairs – Population Division, USA

Varghese, K. & O'Connor, J. T. 1995, 'Routing Large Vehicles on Industrial Construction Sites', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 121 (1), 1-12

Westfall, L. 2009, The Certified Software Quality Engineer Handbook, ASQ Quality Press (In press)

Wideman, R. M. 1990, Total Project Management of Complex Projects Improving Performance with Modern Techniques Presentation to the Construction Industry in the cities of Bangalore, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras and New Delhi on behalf of the Consultancy Development Centre New Delhi, India

Winch, G. 2010, Managing Construction Projects, 2nd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, USA, pp. 284