Building Energy and Cost Performance: An Analysis of Thirty Melbourne Case Studies
This study investigates the energy and cost performance of thirty recent buildings in Melbourne, Australia. Commonly, building design decisions are based on issues pertaining to construction cost, and consideration of energy performance is made only within the context of the initial project budget. Even where energy is elevated to more importance, operating energy is seen as the focus and embodied energy is nearly always ignored. For the first time, a large sample of buildings has been assembled and analyzed to improve the understanding of both energy and cost performance over their full life cycle, which formed the basis of a wider doctoral study into the inherent relationship between energy and cost. The aim of this paper is to report on typical values for embodied energy, operating energy, capital cost and operating cost per square metre for a range of building functional types investigated in this research. The conclusion is that energy and cost have quite different profiles across projects, and yet the mean GJ/m2 or cost/m2 have relatively low coefficients of variation and therefore may be useful as benchmarks of typical building performance.
Arkani, S., Clarke, L., and Michielsens, E. (2003). Regulation for Survival: training and skills in the construction labour market in Jersey, Channel Islands. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 55(3), 261-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13636820300200229
Building Act (2004). Public Act 2004, No 72, Date of assent -24 August 2004, New Zealand Department of Building and Housing, Available from www.building.govt.nz, Accessed on 18 March 2005.
Building Control Commission (2003). Review of the categories and classes of building practitioner registration in Victoria, Industry Discussion Paper, 30 September 2003, Building Commission & Building Advisory Council, Victoria, Available at www.buildingcommission.com.au, Accessed on 10 January 2006.
Building Control Commission (2005). Competencies, Building Commission & Building Advisory Council, Victoria, Available online at www.buildingcommission.com.au, Accessed on 10 January 2006 null
5 Carroll, S. L., and Gaston Robert J.(1983).Occupational Licensing and the Quality of Service :An Overview, Law and Human Behaviour, Vol 7, No.2/3, Professional Regulation (Sep.1983)."
Chan, E. H. W., Chan, M. W., and Chan, A. T. H. (2001). Disintegrating professional boundaries: a case with the building professions in Hong Kong. International Journal of Project Management, 19(2), 127-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(99)00058-7
CIC (2005).The Built Environment Research Strategy, New Zealand Construction Industry Council, Available online at www.nzcic.co.nz, Accessed on 20 December 2005, pp 11.
Clarke, L., and Wall, C. (1998). A blueprint for change: Construction skills training in Britain. Bristol, The Policy Press: 15-18.
DoBH (2004).Licensing of Building Practitioners: Discussing the Options: August 2004. New Zealand Department of Building and Housing, Wellington, Available online at www.dbh.govt.nz, Accessed on 10 January 2006.
DoBH (2005).Paper 1: Background to licensing , objectives of licensing and implementation timetable, Expert Consultation Group Workshop, Proposed License Classes for the Building Industry, Feb 2005, New Zealand Department of Building and Housing, Wellington , made available by a source at the Department.
DoBH (2005a), Paper 4: How do we make it work (implementation implications), Expert Consultation Group Workshop, Feb 2005, New Zealand Department of Building and Housing, Wellington , Available online at www.dbh.govt.nz, made available by a source at the Department.
DoBH (2005b).Licensing of Building Practitioners: Feedback from consultation and final proposed licence classes: March 2005. New Zealand Department of Building and Housing, Wellington, Available online at www.dbh.govt.nz, Accessed on 15 January 2006.
DoBH (2006).What is occupational licensing, New Zealand Department of Building and Housing, Wellington, Available at http://www.dbh.govt.nz/, Accessed on 11 August 2006 null
14 DoBH (2006a).When licensing applies, New Zealand Department of Building and Housing, Wellington, Available at http://www.dbh.govt.nz/, Accessed on 11 August 2006
DoL (2004). Construction Industry Workforce Trends, Work-Insight Paper, Issue 5, November 2004, New Zealand Department of Labour, Available online at www.dol.govt.nz , pp 32-34, Accessed on 18 Feb 2005.
DoL (2005).Wage Growth- September 2005, New Zealand Department of Labour, Available at: www.dol.govt.nz , Accessed on 9 December 2005.
DoL (2006). Skills shortages in the trades-the 2005 picture, June 2006, New Zealand Department of Labour, Available online at www.dol.govt.nz , Accessed on 11 August 2006.
Georgiou, J., Love, P., Smith, J. (1999). Builder Registration in Victoria, Australia-A Sign of Things to come .2nd International Conference on Construction Industry Development, and 1st Conference of CIB TG 29 on Construction in Developing Countries 27-29 October 1999, The Pan Pacific, Singapore null
19 Georgiou, J., Love, P., Smith, J. (2000). A review of builder registration in Victoria, Australia. Structural Survey, 18(1), 38-45." http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02630800010322526
Glaser., G.B. and Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine.
Glaser., G.B. (1992). Basics of grounded theory analysis: emergence vs. forcing. Mill Valley, Ca.: Sociology Press.
Haig, R. (2004). Age Trends in the New Zealand and Australian Trades Workforce 1991-2001.
Labour, employment and work in New Zealand: Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference, Industrial Relations Centre, Victoria Management School, Victoria University of Wellington., Sourced from a confidential source at the New Zealand Department of Labour.
Kleiner, M. M. (Fall 2000)Occupational Licensing. Journal Of Economic Perspectives, 14(4), 189-202.
MED (2003). Discussion Document: Better Regulation of the Building Industry in New Zealand: Discussing the Options, New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development, Available at www.med.govt.nz, Accessed on 9 January 2006 null
26 MED (2003a).Social and Economic Impact Study of Changes to Building Regulation, A study by PricewaterhouseCoopers for the New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development, Available at www.med.govt.nz , Accessed on 15 January 2006."
Naoum, S.G. (1998).Dissertation Research and Writing for Construction Students. Butterworth Heineman.
NZIER (2004). About NZIER, New Zealand Institute of Economic Research, Available at www.nzier.org.nz , Accessed on 9 March 2005.
NZIER (2004a).Quarterly Survey of Business Opinion, October 2004, New Zealand Institute of Economic Research, Available at www.nzier.org.nz, Accessed on 9 March 2005.
NZIER (2005).Quarterly Survey of Business Opinion, January 2005, New Zealand Institute of Economic Research, Available at www.nzier.org.nz, Accessed on 9 June 2005.
Olsen, C., and St.George, M.D. (2004). Cross Section Study Design and Data Analysis, The Young Epidemiology Scholars program, College Entrance Examination Board, Available at www.collegeboard.com , Accessed on 10 January 2006.
Perloff, J., M. (1980).The Impact of Licensing Laws on Wage Changes in the Construction Industry. Journal of Law and Economics, Vol.23, No.2 (Oct., 1980), 409-428.
Rottenberg, S. (1980). Introduction, in Occupational Licensure and Regulation. S. Rottenberg, ed. Washington, American Enterprise Institute, pp.1-10.
Wilkinson, S., and Scofield, R.(1997).Integrating architecture and engineering education: A case study of a new management course .Proc.3rd and 4th Int. Electronic AUBEA Conf.1997-1998, Australia, Australian Universities Building Education Association-Research, Australia, pp 37-40.
Zikmund, W. (1997). Business Research Methods. Dryden Press.
Zhou, X. (1993). Occupational Power, State Capacities, and the Diffusion of Licensing in the American States: 1890 to 1950, American Sociological Review, 58(4), pp 536-552.