An Evaluation of a Proposed Ventilation System for Melbourne's CH2 Building

Lu Aye, Robert Fuller


The understanding of ventilation requirements in commercial buildings has been significantly revised in the last 10-15 years. A link between health, productivity and increased fresh air use has been established by some research and this understanding underpins the ventilation philosophy adopted for the CH2 building. The ventilation system design for CH2 that has been evaluated in this paper envisages a mechanically driven system during the day, using the displacement technique to distribute filtered air. All introduced air will be drawn from outside and no recycling of air will occur. Natural ventilation will be employed at night using the stack effect, enhanced by turbine ventilators. This paper critiques the proposed ventilation system in the light of international experience and the particular conditions of the building's location. The evidence suggests that natural ventilation sometimes may be inadequate to achieve the desired objectives. Minimization of indoor pollutants, adequate filtration and high levels of ventilation should, however, ensure satisfactory air quality during occupied hours.

Full Text:



AEC (2003), Aircond Design Strategy, Advanced Environmental Concepts Pty Ltd, North Sydney, NSW.

ASHRAE (2001), Fundamentals Handbook (SI), American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Airconditioning Engineers, Atlanta.

Bluyssen, P.M., de Oliveira Fernandes, E., Groes, L., Clausen, G.H., Fanger, P.O., Valbjorn, 0., Bernard, CA and Roulet, CA (1996), 'European indoor air quality audit project to optimize indoor air quality and energy consumption in office buildings', Indoor Air Journal, vol.6, pp.221-338.

Bluyssen, P.M., Cox, C., Seppanen, 0., de Oliveira Fernandes, E., Clausen, G., Muller, B. and Roulet, CA (2003), 'Why, when and how do HVAC-systems pollute the indoor environment and what to do about it? The European AIRLESS project', Building and Environment, vo1.38, pp.209-225.

Brown, S.K., Si m, M.R., Abramson, M.J. and Gray, C.N. (1994), 'Concentrations of volatile organic compounds in indoor air -a review', Indoor Air, vol.4 pp.123-134.

CoM (2004), City of Melbourne website, & pa=1943 & pg=1934 (access 14 July 2004).

Clausen, G. (2004), 'Ventilation filters and indoor air quality: a review of research from the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy', Indoor Air, vo1.14, pp.202-207.

Designlnc (2003), Eco Report -Material + Product Selection, Designlnc Melbourne Pty Ltd, Melbourne.

Ekberg, L.E. (1996), 'Relationships between indoor and outdoor contaminants in mechanically ventilated buildings', Indoor Air, vol.6, pp.41-47.

EPA (2000), Effects of ambient air pollution on daily mortality in Melbourne 1991-1996, Melbourne mortality study, Environment Protection Authority, Southbank, Melbourne.

EPA (2001), Ambient air quality NEPM monitoring plan -Victoria, Environment Protection Authority, Southbank, Melbourne, February.

EPA (2004a), Victoria's air quality 2003. Air monitoring data tables, Environment Protection Authority, Southbank, Melbourne.

EPA (2004b), Victoria 's air quality 2003. Environment Report, Environment Protection Authority, Southbank, Melbourne.

Fisk, WJ. (2002), 'How IEQ affects health, productivity', ASHRAE Journal, May, pp.56-58.

Fisk, WJ. and Rosenfeld, A.H. (1997), 'Estimates of improved productivity and health from better indoor environments', Indoor Air, vol. 7, pp.158-172.

Green, N.E., Etheridge, DW and Riffat, S.B. (2001), 'Location of air intakes to avoid contamination of indoor air: a wind tunnel investigation', Building and Environment, vo1.36, pp.1-14.

Hedge, A, Sterling, TO., Sterling, E.M., Collett, CW, Sterling, DA and Nie, V. (1989), 'Indoor air quality and health in two office buildings with different ventilation systems', Environment International, vo1.15, pp.115-128.

Lai, C. (2003), 'Experiments on the ventilation efficiency of turbine ventilators used for building and factory ventilation', Energy and Buildings, vo1.35, no.9, pp.927-932.

Milton, D.K, Glencross, PM. and Waiters, M.D. (2000), 'Risk of sick leave associated with outdoor air supply rate , humidification and occupant complaints', Indoor Air, vol.1 0, pp.212-221.

NOHSC (1989), Legionnaire's Disease and Related Illnesses, National Occupational Health and Safety Commission, Australian Government, Canberra.

NOHSC (1995a), Guidance Note on the Interpretation of Exposure Standards for Atmospheric Contaminants in the Occupational Environment, [NOSHC:3008 (1995)], 3rd. edition, National Occupational Health and Safety Commission, Australian Government, Canberra.

NOHSC (1995b), Exposure Standards for Atmospheric Contaminants in the Occupational Environment, National exposure standards database, National Occupational Health and Safety Commission, Australian Government, Canberra.

Olesen, B.W. (2004), 'International standards for the indoor environment', Indoor Air, vo1.14, suppl.7, pp.18-26.

Owen, M.K., Ensor, D.S. and Sparks, L.E. 1992, 'Airborne particle sizes and sources found in indoor air', Atmospheric Environment, part A, general topics, vo1.26, no.12, pp.2149-62.

Phillips, J.L., Field, R., Goldstone, M., Reynolds, G.L., Lester, J.N. and Perry, R. (1993), 'Relationships between indoor and outdoor air quality in four naturally ventilated offices in the United Kingdom', Atmospheric Environment, vol.27A, no.11, pp.1743-1753.

Parat, S., Perdix, A, Fricker-Hidalgo, H., Saude, I., Grillot, R. and Baconnier, P (1997), 'Multivariate analysis comparing microbial air content of an air-conditioned building and a naturally ventilated building over one year', Atmospheric Environment, vol.31, no.3, pp.44 1-449.

Roy, G.G. and Miller, S.G. (1981), Data Handbook for Australian Solar Energy Designers, Research Report No. 7, School of Architecture, University of Western Australia.

Skov, P., and Valbjorn, O. (1987), The sick" building syndrome in the office environment: the Danish town hall study', Environment International, nO.13, pp.339-349."

Tham, K.w. (2004), 'Effects of temperature and outdoor air supply rate on the performance of call center operators in the tropics', Indoor Air, vo1.14, suppl.7, pp.119-125.

Wargocki, P., Sundell, J., Bischof, w., Brundrett, G., Fanger, P.O., Gyntelberg, F., Hanssen, S.O., Harrison, P., Pickering, A, Seppanen, O. and Wouters, P. (2002a), 'Ventilation and health requirements in non-industrial indoor environments: report from a European Multidisciplinary Scientific Consensus Meeting (EUROVEN)', Indoor Air, vo1.12, pp.113-128.

Wargocki, P., Lagercrantz, L., Witterseh, T, Sundell, J., Wyon, D.P. and Fanger, P.O. (2002b), 'Subjective perceptions, symptom intensity and performance: a comparision of two independent studies, both changing similarly the pollution load in an office', Indoor Air, vo1.12, pp. 74-80.

Wargocki, P., Wyon, D.P. and Fanger, PO. (2004), The performance and subjective responses of call-center operators with new and used supply air filters at two outdoor air supply rates ', Indoor Air, vo1.14, suppl.8, pp.7-16.

West, S. (2001), 'Improving the sustainable development of building stock by the implementation of energy efficient, climate control technologies', Building and Environment, vo1.36, pp.281--289.

WHO (2000), Air Quality Guidelines, 2nd. edition, World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Wood, R.A, Orwell, R.L., Tarran, J., Torpy, F., and Burchett, M. (2002), 'Pot-plants really do clean indoor air. Potted-plant/growth media interactions and capacities for removal of volatiles from indoor air', Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, vol.??, pp.120-129.